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FWD Van and Trailer

Pavement Design

Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD)
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About FWD


The Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) is a device that is used to evaluate pavement and pavement layer stiffness. It is a trailer-mounted device that operates by dropping a weight on to the pavement and measuring the resulting pavement deflections. Various computations may be performed on the deflection data to evaluate the pavement and the stiffness of it and its constituent layers.



FWD Calibration Center


The MnDOT FWD Calibration Center is located at the Materials & Road Research Laboratory in Maplewood Map/Directions to Office of Materials. Prior to traveling for calibration, please complete the Calibration Checklist (PDF 54 KB, 1 p).



FWD Contacts


To request FWD testing or FWD calibration and for questions regarding FWD data, contact



Greg Larson

Non-Destructive Testing




For questions regarding analyzing FWD data, contact:


Steven Henrichs

Assistant Pavement Design Engineer



Quick Links

Materials Manuals

Mn/DOT Resources

Request Testing


FWD testing is normally performed in the summer and early autumn months when the pavement is unaffected by frost or thaw-weakening. In the northern districts (D1,D2, D3, D4) testing is normally performed from June 1st to October 15th. In the southern districts (Metro, D6, D7, D8) testing is normally performed June 1st to November 1st.


Typically, the districts will be asked to file requests for FWD testing in the winter before the testing season so that the operators can be most efficiently scheduled. However, testing may be requsted at any time.


Please use the following form to file all requests:

Non-Destructive Testing Request (MS Word 39 KB, 1 p)




Data Analysis


FWD data may be analyzed several different ways for different puposes. The following options are available to analyze FWD data.


TONN Method


The TONN Method, implemented with the TONN Program, calculates the recommended seasonal load restriction based on pavement deflections collected with a FWD. The TONN Method applies only to HMA pavements, either on aggregate base or on subgrade.


The TONN Program is an Excel spreadsheet that is used by District personnel to automate the TONN Method. When FWD testing is completed, the District will receive the data as an Excel spreadsheet from the Pavement Design Section. District personnel may then use the TONN Program, and information provided by the District, to calculate:


Link to download the TONN program TONN program (212 KB)

Instructions for using theTONN program TONN INSTRUCTIONS

ELMOD Back-calculation


ELMOD is a program operated by personnel at the Office of materials & Road Research that can calculate the modulus of each pavement layer from FWD data. The modulus of the subgrade can be converted into a subgrade R-value. The thicknesses of the existing layers is required to be able to process FWD data with ELMOD.

PCC Load Transfer Efficiency


This testing is used to determine how well a PCC joint or crack transfers a load across it. This testing is performed by dropping the FWD weight on one side of the joint and recording the subsequent deflections at the location of the weights impact and the deflections on the other side of the joint. The ratio of the unloaded deflection to the loaded deflection is reported as the load transfer efficiency.