Phase II Archaeological Evaluation of the St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg) and the Dunnigan Lake Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526) along Trunk Highway 1

Lake County, Minnesota

 

 

 

 

MN/DOT Agreement No. 82695, Work Order 8

S.P. No. 3802-18

OSA License Nos. 03-062 & 03-063

 

 

 

 

Sponsored By:

 

 

Minnesota Department of Transportation

395 John Ireland Boulevard

Saint Paul, Minnesota 55155-1899

 

 

 

Prepared by:

 

 

Christopher M. Schoen

Principal Investigator

 

 

 

 

 

April 2004

 


 

Technical Report Documentation Page

 

 

1) Report No.

 

2)

 

3) Recipients Accession No.

 

4) Title and Subtitle

Phase II Archaeological Evaluation of the St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg) and the Dunnigan Lake Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526) Along Trunk Highway 1, Lake County, Minnesota

 

5) Report Date: April 2004

 

6)

 

7) Author(s): Christopher M. Schoen, Archaeologist

 

 

8) Performing Organization Report No. XE-3220

 

 

9) Performing Organization Name and Address

The Louis Berger Group, Inc.

950 50th Street

Marion, Iowa 52302

 

10) Project/Task/Work Unit No.

 

11) Contract (C) or Grant (G) No.

C) Mn/DOT Agreement No. 82695, Work Order 8,

 S.P. No. 3802-18

 

12) Sponsoring Organization Name and Address

Minnesota Department of Transportation

395 John Ireland Boulevard, Mail Stop 620

St. Paul, Minnesota 55155

 

13) Type of Report & Period Covered:  FINAL

 

14)

 

15) Supplementary Notes:

 

16) Abstract (Limit 200 words)

The Louis Berger Group, Inc. has completed a Phase II archaeological evaluation of two historic sites along the proposed highway improvements for Trunk Highway 1 between the intersection with Trunk Highway 2 and the South Kawishiwi River in Lake County, Minnesota. The St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg) is located on the Stony River. The dam site lies in the SW¼, SW ¼, NW ¼, NW¼, Section 17, T60N, R10W in Stony River Township. The Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526) lies near Little Spring Lake in the NE ¼, SE ¼, NE ¼, SE ¼, Section 30, T61N, R10W in Stony River Township. Both sites are within Archaeological Region 8.

Although structural elements of the dam cribbing present in the bed of the Stony River provide some information about the construction of such dams for impounding waterways to facilitate movement of cut logs downstream to saw mills or extraction points, the information that the remains can contribute appears minimal, such as dimensions of the dam, materials used, and general configuration. It is likely that more information about this type of dam can be obtained from archival sources. Therefore, the dam remains do not appear to be eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion D, and Berger recommends that no additional archaeological work be done at this site.

The Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp F-16 includes structural remains, pits, and intact archaeological deposits associated with operation of this facility between 1933 and about 1937. The archaeological features and artifacts can contribute important information about the organization, diet, and activities at the camp, which was occupied by Company 1720 for about four years. The site, therefore, is recommended as eligible for listing in the NRHP under Criterion D. The camp is also eligible under Criterion A for its association with the ECW/CCC program. Berger recommends that proposed highway construction occur south and west of the site, which appears to be bounded on these sides by Features 10, 11, 22, and 23.

 

17) Document Analysis/Descriptors

 

18) Availability Statement:

No restrictions.

Document available from: The Louis Berger Group, Inc.

 

19) Security Class (this report)

Unclassified

 

20) Security Class (this page)

Unclassified

 

21) No. of Pages

 

 

22) Price

 

Optional Form 272 (4-77)

(Formerly NTIS-35)


 

PHASE II ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE

ST. CROIX LUMBER COMPANY DAM (21LAOg)

AND THE DUNNIGAN LAKE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION

CORPS CAMP (21LK526) ALONG TRUNK HIGHWAY 1

LAKE COUNTY, MINNESOTA

 

 

 

 

 

 

MnDOT Agreement No. 82695, Work Order 8

S.P. No. 3802-18

OSA License Nos. 03-062 & 03-063

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared for:

Minnesota Department of Transportation

395 John Ireland Boulevard

Saint Paul, Minnesota 55155-1899

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepared by:

Christopher M. Schoen

Principal Investigator

 

 

 

 

The Louis Berger Group, Inc.

950 50th Street

Marion, Iowa 52302

 

 

April 2004


The Louis Berger Group, Inc. has completed a Phase II archaeological evaluation of two historic sites along the proposed highway improvements for Trunk Highway 1 (the St. Croix Road) between the intersection with Trunk Highway 2 and the South Kawishiwi River in Lake County, Minnesota. The St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg) is located on the Stony River. The dam site lies in the SW¼, SW ¼, NW ¼, NW¼, Section 17, T60N, R10W in Stony River Township. The Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526) lies near Little Spring Lake in the NE ¼, SE ¼, NE ¼, SE ¼, Section 30, T61N, R10W in Stony River Township. Both sites are within Archaeological Region 8. The work, which was completed between October 20th and November 1st, 2003, was sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) and licensed by the Minnesota Office of the State Archaeologist and the United States Department of Agriculture, United States Forest Service, Superior National Forest. The work by Berger was directed by Principal Investigator Christopher M. Schoen.

Archaeological evaluation at the St. Croix Lumber Company dam involved pedestrian survey along both banks of the Stony River, excavation of 13 shovel tests, and mapping of the site. The investigation determined that the site includes a rectangular area approximately 160 meters north to south by 40 meters wide east to west (0.64 hectares/1.58 acres) that includes the dam cribbing in the river and the berm covering the wing dam. The remaining area has been substantially disturbed by construction of the current route of T.H.1 and graveling operations east of the highway. Although structural elements of the dam cribbing present in the bed of the Stony River provide some information about the construction of such dams for impounding waterways to facilitate movement of cut timber downstream to saw mills or extraction points, the information that the remains can contribute appears minimal, such as dimensions of the dam, materials used, and general configuration. It is likely that more information about this type of dam can be obtained from archival sources. Therefore, the dam remains do not appear to be eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Current plans indicate that the dam remains will not be affected by construction activities. Therefore, Berger recommends that no additional archaeological work be done at this site.

Phase II work at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp (F-16) involved pedestrian survey, mapping the site, and excavation of three, 1x1-meter test units to examine three features: a possible root cellar (Feature 1), a well (Feature 3), and a latrine pit (Feature 14). The camp includes structural remains, pits, and intact archaeological deposits associated with operation of this facility between 1933 and perhaps 1937. The site encompasses an area approximately 150 meters north to south by 200 meters east to west (3.0 hectares/7.4 acres). The archaeological features and artifacts at the site can contribute important information about the organization, diet, and activities at the camp, which was occupied by Company 1720 for about four years. The site, therefore, is recommended as eligible for listing in the NRHP under Criterion D. The camp is also recommended eligible under Criterion A for its association with the ECW/CCC program. Berger recommends that proposed highway construction occur south and west of the site, which appears to be bounded on these sides by Features 10, 11, 22, and 23.

CHAPTER                                                                                                                                   PAGE

Abstract............................................................................................................................................... i

List of Figures..................................................................................................................................... iii

List of Tables....................................................................................................................................... v

I INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................ 1

            A. Purpose of Investigation....................................................................................................... 1

            B. Project Location and Area of Potential Effects...................................................................... 1

            C. Project Authorization and Personnel...................................................................................... 1

II PROJECT DESCRIPTION.............................................................................................................. 5

            A. Proposed Minnesota Trunk Highway 1 Improvements........................................................... 5

            B. Current Land Use at Site 21LAOg ...................................................................................... 5

            C. Current Land Use at Site 21LA526....................................................................................... 5

III RESEARCH DESIGN.................................................................................................................... 6

            A. Research Objectives............................................................................................................ 6

            B. Research Methods .............................................................................................................. 6

IV LITERATURE SEARCH............................................................................................................... 9

            A. Sources Consulted............................................................................................................... 9

            B. Environmental Setting.......................................................................................................... 9

            C. Cultural Historical Setting................................................................................................... 11

            D. Previous Investigations....................................................................................................... 22

            E. Archaeological Site Potential............................................................................................... 27

V FIELD INVESTIGATIONS........................................................................................................... 31

            A. Existing Conditions............................................................................................................. 31

            B. St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg)....................................................................... 36

            C. Dunnigan Lake Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526)............................................. 39

VI SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................. 64

            A. St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg)....................................................................... 64

            B. Dunnigan Lake Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526)............................................. 65

REFERENCES CITED...................................................................................................................... 72

 

APPENDIX A: Archaeological License

APPENDIX B: Artifact Cataloging and Analysis Methods and Artifact List

APPENDIX C: Civilian Conservation Corps Camps in Minnesota

APPENDIX D. Minnesota Archaeological Site Forms

FIGURE                                                                                                                                       PAGE

 1.        Project Location....................................................................................................................... 2

 2.        St. Croix Lumber Company and Dunnigan Lake Project Areas .................................................. 3

 3.        Organization of ECW/CCC Companies.................................................................................... 17

 4.        Officers’ Quarters at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp..................................................... 23

 5.        Barracks No. 3 at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp.......................................................... 23

 6.        Front of Barracks No. 3 at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp............................................. 24

 7.        Barracks Interior at the Caledonia SCS Camp.......................................................................... 25

 8.        Recreation Hall at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp.......................................................... 25

 9.        Side View of the Recreation Hall at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp................................ 26

 10.       Log Tool House at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp......................................................... 26

 11.       Officers’ Mess at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp.......................................................... 27

 12.       Sketch of the St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (Mulholland and Donahue 2003)........................ 28

 13.       Sketch of the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp (Mulholland and Donahue 2003)....................... 29

 14.       Plan of the St. Croix Lumber Company Dam Site (21LAOg).................................................... 32

 15.       St. Croix Lumber Company Dam Across the Stony River, Looking North.................................. 33

 16.       St. Croix Lumber Company Dam, Looking Southeast................................................................ 33

 17.       South Portion of Dam, Looking West....................................................................................... 34

 18.       Center Portion of Dam, Looking West..................................................................................... 34

 19.       North Portion of Dam, Looking West....................................................................................... 35

 20.       Cribbing Timbers at East Side of Dam..................................................................................... 35

 21.       Plan of the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp (21LA526)......................................................... 37

 22.       Plan of Feature 1 at Ground Surface........................................................................................ 42

 23.       Feature 1 (Root Cellar), Looking North.................................................................................... 43

 24.       Feature 2 (Toppled Chimney of a Structure), Looking North...................................................... 43

 25.       Plan of Feature 3 at Ground Surface........................................................................................ 44

 26.       Feature 3 (Well Depression), Looking East.............................................................................. 45

 27.       Feature 4 (Sign Pedestal), Looking South................................................................................. 46

 28.       Feature 5 (Toppled Chimney of a Structure), Looking Northwest............................................... 46

 29.       Feature 6 (Foundation), Looking West..................................................................................... 47

 30.       Feature 7 (Drainage Ditch), Looking Northeast........................................................................ 48

FIGURE                                                                                                                                       PAGE

 31.       Feature 8 (Footings and Floor), Looking West.......................................................................... 49

 32.       Feature 10 (Footings and Floor), Looking West......................................................................... 50

 33.       Feature 19 (Well), Looking East.............................................................................................. 53

 34.       Feature 22 (Concrete Footings), Looking West......................................................................... 53

 35.       Feature 24 (Toppled Chimney of a Structure), Looking East...................................................... 55

 36.       Feature 3, Test Unit 1, West Wall Profile................................................................................. 56

 37.       Feature 1, Test Unit 2, North Wall Profile................................................................................ 58

 38.       Plan of Feature 14 at Ground Surface...................................................................................... 60

 39.       Feature 14, Test Unit 3, West Wall Profile............................................................................... 61

 40.       Musicaire Dry Cell Pack......................................................................................................... 63

 41        Log Driving Dam (Ryan 1976)................................................................................................ 66

 

TABLE                                                                                                                                        PAGE

 1.        Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Designations....................................................................... 18

 2.        Dimensions of Portable CCC Camp Buildings in 1937............................................................... 19

 3.        Dimensions of ECW/CCC Buildings at Norris Camp (S-60)...................................................... 19

 4.        Shovel Tests at the St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (21LAOg)............................................... 39

 5.        Features at the Dunnigan Lake Civilian Conservation Corps Camp (21LA526)..................................... 40

 6.        Cans Sampled From Feature 1 Fill........................................................................................... 59

 


I.   INTRODUCTION

A.    PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION

The Louis Berger Group, Inc. (Berger) has completed a Phase II archaeological evaluation of two historic sites along the proposed highway improvements for Trunk Highway 1 between the intersection with Trunk Highway 2 and the South Kawishiwi River in Lake County, Minnesota (Figure 1). The sites are the St. Croix Lumber Company dam (21LAOg) across the Stony River and the Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps (ECW/CCC) Camp F-16 (21LA526). Both sites are within Archaeological Region 8. The investigation was sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) as part of Project S.P. 3802-18.

The primary purpose of the archaeological evaluations was to determine whether either site includes intact archaeological deposits likely to contribute important new information about the logging industry in Minnesota or the Civilian Conservation Corps, respectively, and whether either site should be considered eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). This objective was met through (a) an assessment of available archival resources pertinent to each site, (b) inventory and description of archaeological features, and (c) testing of site deposits.

B.    PROJECT LOCATION AND AREA OF POTENTIAL EFFECTS

The St. Croix Lumber Company dam (Site 21LAOg) is located on the Stony River, a quarter mile south of mile marker 308. The dam site lies in the SW¼, SW ¼, NW ¼, NW¼, Section 17, T60N, R10W in Stony River Township (Figure 2). Current plans for the proposed replacement of Bridge 6710 and realignment of T.H. 1 indicate that there will be no impacts to the dam cribbing. The wing dam under an earthen berm southwest of the dam cribbing also will not be affected. The Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps Camp F-16 (Site 21LA526) lies west of Little Spring Lake, a half mile south of mile marker 304, in the NE ¼, SE ¼, NE ¼, SE ¼, Section 30, T61N, R10W in Stony River Township. Plans have not been prepared for the northern half of the project to date, but realignment of T.H. 1 to smooth out two sharp curves in the area of the camp could potentially affect a portion or the entire site. The current site conditions are described in Chapter II.

C.    PROJECT AUTHORIZATION AND PERSONNEL

Archaeologist Christopher Schoen served as Project Manager and Principal Investigator for the Phase II evaluation. Mr. Schoen is a Registered Professional Archaeologist and meets or exceeds the qualifications described in the Secretary of the Interior’s Professional Qualifications Standards (Federal Register 48:190:44738-44739). Berger received Notice-to-Proceed from Mn/DOT on October 15, 2003. The field investigation was completed between October 20th and November 1st, 2003. The fieldwork was directed by Mr. Schoen with assistance from Crew Chief Richard Davis and Field Archaeologists Mary Pike Davis, Jennifer Elsinger, Steven Poole, and Jeffery Williams. The report was prepared by Mr. Schoen. Report graphics were prepared by Draftsperson Diane Stölen and Photographer Bruce Harms. Laboratory processing was completed by Mary Pike Davis and analyses were completed by Laboratory Supervisor Susan Butler and Chris Schoen.

The Phase II investigation was licensed by the Minnesota Office of the State Archaeologist (OSA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States Forest Service (USFS), Superior National Forest. Permits were  obtained from  both agencies  because  Trunk Highway 1  and the




rivers it crosses fall within the jurisdiction of the State of Minnesota. However, the highway passes through the Superior National Forest, which has jurisdiction over areas outside of the state right-of-way tracts. Thus, the dam site in the Stony River falls within the prevue of the State, while the ECW/CCC camp lies on US Forest Service land. Appendix A includes a copy of the licenses (Nos. 03-062 and 03-063) issued to Mr. Schoen by the Minnesota Office of the State Archaeologist and the Archeological Resource Protection Act (ARPA) permit from the Superior National Forest, United States Forest Service, to conduct the present archaeological investigation.

The photographs for the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp from the Robert Laudenschlager collection were made available courtesy of the Iron Range Research Center in Chisholm, Minnesota. This facility has a variety of resources regarding lumbering, mining, local communities, and the ECW/CCC and can be a valuable asset for any researcher with an interest in northeast Minnesota.

This investigation and report were completed in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (as amended through 1992); the Archaeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974; Executive Order 11593; 36 CFR 660-666, as appropriate; and the Procedures for the Protection of Historic Properties (36 CFR 800). The field investigation and technical report were designed to meet the standards specified in the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archaeology and Historic Preservation (Federal Register 48:190:44716-44742), as well as the Minnesota Field Archaeology Act, and the SHPO Manual for Archaeological Projects in Minnesota issued by the Minnesota State Historic Preservation Office in June 2001.

A.    PROPOSED MINNESOTA TRUNK HIGHWAY 1 IMPROVEMENTS

The Minnesota Department of Transportation plans to reconstruct approximately 14.5 miles of Trunk Highway 1 from the South Kawishiwi River near mile marker 297 south to the junction of T.H. 1 and T.H. 2 (Lake County Road 2) near mile marker 311 (S.P. 3801-13 and 3802-18). The highway passes through the northwestern part of Lake County in the project area and lies within the vast Superior National Forest. Current plans call for realignment of some segments of the extant highway to moderate the angles of some curves for safety and to replace Bridge No. 6710 across the Stony River. Replacement of the bridge, as currently planned, will not affect the remains of the St. Croix Lumber Company dam (circa 1899 to 1910) in the stream bed. Plans have not been prepared for the northern half of the project to date, but realignment of T.H. 1 to smooth out two sharp curves in the area of the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp by Little Spring Lake could potentially affect a portion or the entire site.

B.    CURRENT LAND USE AT SITE 21LAOg

The St. Croix Lumber Company dam remains lie within the bed of the Stony River and is bordered by the Superior National Forest. The Stony River and Slate Lake are used for recreational activities, such as canoeing and fishing. A concrete boat ramp is located about 100 meters east of the highway on the south shore of Slate Lake. Bridge No. 6710 spans the river about eight meters east of the dam cribbing. Private cabins are located east and west of T.H. 1 on the higher terraces north of the river. Gravel quarrying had occurred east of the highway on the south side of Slate Lake at an undetermined date. A gravel service road, Forest Road 178, extends west from the highway from near the southwest end of the bridge and parallels the south bank of the river at this location. A two-track trail on a berm extends southwest from FR 178 near its junction with TH 1. The low terrace at the east side of the highway on the south side of the river is broad and graveled. It appears to have served as a staging area for highway maintenance or logging.

C.    CURRENT LAND USE AT SITE 21LA526

The Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp (Site 21LA526) also lies within the Superior National Forest. The forest is used primarily for recreational activities, such as hiking, hunting, and trapping, although some logging occurs. The site area was abandoned in the late 1930s and the forest was allowed to reclaim the camp location. A large ring of limestone encircling charcoal and ash on a concrete pad of one of the former buildings and scatters of modern debris in the adjacent tree line indicate use of the site as a social gathering place for area teenagers or young adults.

A.    RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Mn/DOT contracted with Berger to complete a Phase II archaeological evaluation of two archaeological sites along the proposed TH 1 construction corridor, the remains of the St. Croix Lumber Company dam across the Stony River (Site 21LAOg) and the Dunnigan Lake Civilian ECW/CCC camp F-16 (21LA526) located west of Little Spring Lake. The purpose of the investigation was to assess the eligibility of the St. Croix Lumber Company dam and the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp for listing on the National Register of Historic Places based on each site’s potential to yield important new information about the logging industry in Minnesota and the United States in the case of the logging dam and about the Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps in the region and country in the case of the Dunnigan Lake camp. The investigation was planned (1) to document the method of construction of the logging dam; (2) to carefully document the vertical distribution of site materials associated with the dam and the camp; (3) to recover temporally diagnostic artifacts that help to date fill episodes of logging dam or ECW/CCC camp features; and (4) to recover a representative sample of artifacts and other archaeological materials from site deposits which could be used to address the research questions identified below.

Research issues for the St. Croix Lumber Company dam included:

(a)     Are there other features in addition to the logging dam cribbing that are associated with the logging operations at this site?

(b)     When was the dam constructed and used?

(c)     What are the dimensions of the dam cribbing?

(d)     How was the dam constructed?

(e)     What is the condition of the structural remains and archaeological deposits associated with the dam?

(f)     What are the site boundaries?

Research questions for the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp included:

(a)     How many and what kinds of structural remains and archaeological features are associated with the camp?

(b)     What is the condition of the structural remains and archaeological deposits associated with the camp?

(c)     What are the site boundaries?

(d)     When was the camp constructed and used?

(e)     How does the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp compare with other ECW/CCC camps in the region?

B.    RESEARCH METHODS

1.    Project Preparation

Prior to initiating fieldwork, Berger prepared a Site Safety Plan. This standardized form was completed by the Principal Investigator and identifies (1) potential site hazards, including the anticipated depths of excavation, poison ivy, snake and insect bites and stings, extreme heat or cold conditions, and storms; (2) local emergency resources such as ambulance service, fire rescue, and county and local police departments; and (3) the location of and route map to the nearest emergency medical facility. The plan was reviewed with crew members the first day of fieldwork. Each individual read the plan and signed the form to acknowledge that it had been read. Follow-up “tailgate” safety meetings were held in the field each week. Records of the on-site meetings were maintained in the supervisor’s notebook. Given the winter conditions during which the fieldwork was done, emphasis was placed on using appropriate clothing and equipment to prevent frost bite and hyperthermia, safety with propane heaters, hydration, and adequate caloric intake.

2.    Field Methodology

Field work consisted of (1) pedestrian survey of each site to identify surface features and artifact concentrations associated with each site; (2) mapping the locations of archaeological features, extant structures and roadways, benchmarks, topographical features, and other landmarks at each site; (3) documenting surface characteristics of archaeological features; (4) systematic shovel testing at the logging dam site; and (5) excavation of test units at the ECW/CCC camp.

Shovel tests were hand excavated along transects placed both perpendicular and parallel to the banks of the Stony River at the logging dam site to look for subsurface features. The tests were located on areas of high to moderate potential for intact deposits, but not in gravel roads or low lying areas. Each shovel test was approximately 50 centimeters in diameter and excavated in 10-centimeter intervals. The tests were dug into sterile subsoil or glacial gravels unless large cobbles created an impasse. Shovel testing was supplemented by excavation with a Seymour bucket auger in situations where deposits continued 100 centimeters below ground surface. All matrix excavated from each shovel test was sifted through ¼-inch mesh hardware cloth to facilitate artifact recovery. The texture and color of each matrix deposit was described using standard United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) terminology and Munsell color charts. No test units were determined necessary to record the attributes of Site 21LAOg.

No shovel or auger tests were excavated at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp (Site 21LA526) as surface features and artifact concentrations clearly defined the site boundaries. Three, 1x1-meter test units were excavated at the site to sample three features (Features 1, 3, and 14). Prior to excavation, a series of elevations were taken in and around each test unit relative to each unit datum to record the uneven ground surface created by feature depressions. The unit datum was usually established at the highest point of ground surface near a corner of each test unit. All depths were reported relative to the unit datum. Units were excavated in 10-centimeter arbitrary levels to the base of each feature in the test unit. Because test units included a segment of feature depressions, the first few levels of each unit often included only a portion of the entire unit. The area actually excavated in each level was illustrated in plan on the reverse side of standardized unit level forms designed by Berger. Matrix from the excavation units was sifted through ¼-inch hardware mesh to facilitate artifact recovery. Soil from separate strata were excavated and screened separately for artifact recovery, as appropriate. The texture and color of each soil stratum identified in each level were recorded on the plan map and form using standard USDA terminology and Munsell color charts. A plan was drawn to scale of each of the three features tested. A representative profile of each test unit was drawn to scale and photographed to record native strata, fill strata, feature dimensions, and disturbances, as appropriate.

Artifacts from each discrete provenience at each site were placed in clear resealable (ziplock) polyethylene bags with a preprinted cardstock tag designed by Berger on which the site number, horizontal and vertical provenience information, date, excavators’ names, and artifact count were recorded. Artifacts and other archaeological materials recovered during Phase II testing were taken to Berger’s Marion, Iowa laboratory for processing, identification, and analysis.

Not all items were collected for laboratory processing and curation. Artifacts with limited analytical significance (such as rock, brick, mortar, plaster, roofing material, or large metal items), nondiagnostic items (such as wire, fragments of metal sheeting), and modern trash (such as plastic food wrappers, plastic containers, aluminum beverage cans, twist-off cap beverage bottles, plastic sheeting, and generic plastic fragments) were recorded as present or absent in each excavation level. Representative samples of brick and mortar were collected for curation.

Black and white and color slide photographs were taken using 35 millimeter SLR cameras to document the field conditions and topography as well as the surface expression of each feature. The locations and elevations of excavation units, unit datums, extant structures, project construction survey stakes, and topography were recorded using a total station and survey tapes. A Trimble Global Positioning System unit was used to record a few points at each site. The forest and topography interfered with satellite signals, reducing the utility of this instrument. All features, shovel tests, and test unit locations were referenced to a permanent site datum and project stationing or other prominent local landmarks.

3.    Laboratory Processing and Analysis

Laboratory processing and analysis were completed for archaeological materials collected during the Phase II testing that were not recorded on site. Each unique excavation provenience (i.e., shovel test or test unit level, feature, etc.) was assigned a unique catalog number during fieldwork. This number was also assigned to all materials recovered from that provenience and used as a reference to track the associated artifacts and other materials throughout processing and analysis tasks.

Processing tasks included primarily washing, sorting, and labeling of artifacts. All materials were washed or dry-brushed as appropriate. After preliminary processing, all artifacts were sorted by major material classes (such as glass, ceramics, tobacco pipes, architectural, small finds, flora, and fauna) in preparation for analysis and interpretation by appropriate material specialists. The sorted artifacts were placed in separate resealable (ziplock) plastic bags along with cardstock tags indicating their provenience. Information on the cards included the field provenience information as well as the assigned site number and catalog numbers. No artifacts were collected at Site 21LAOg as the materials included only modern trash. Artifacts recovered from Site 21LA536 were tagged, but not labeled, as directed by the Superior National Forest.

All necessary analyses of artifacts and other archaeological materials were completed by Berger staff. No floral materials were observed and no samples were taken from the fill deposits. A complete inventory of the materials recovered from Site 21LA526 during the project is included as Appendix B of the report. Upon acceptance of the final report, all site records for Site 21LAOg will be prepared for permanent curation at the Minnesota Historical Society in St. Paul under MHS Agreement No. 243. Site materials and associated records for Site 21LA526 will be transferred to the Heritage Resource Staff for permanent curation at the Forest Collection at the University of Minnesota at Duluth.

A.    SOURCES CONSULTED

A number of sources were examined for this project, beginning with the Phase I survey report by Mulholland and Donahue (2003), the National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form for Federal Relief Construction in Minnesota, 1933-1941 (1991), project plans, and U.S. Geological Survey topographic quadrangle maps of the project area (East Slate Lake and West Slate Lake, Minnesota 1984). Other sources consulted for this report included Lake County, Minnesota site files at the State Historic Preservation Office, Minnesota Historical Society at St. Paul, site files at the Superior National Forest headquarters at Duluth, and the collections at the Iron Range Research Center (IRRC) at Chisholm, Minnesota. The Iron Range Research Center has an impressive collection of photographs, audiocassette recordings (some of which are transcribed), clippings, newsletters, and other materials relating to the Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps, the mining industry, lumbering, and local communities. Photographs of the Dunnigan Lake Camp (F-16) from the Robert Laudenschlager Collection in this report were made available courtesy of the IRRC.

B.    ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

Lake County encompasses an area of 2,398.94 square miles in the Arrowhead region of northeast Minnesota (State Bureau of Immigration 1912:82). Of the 1,535,325.43 acres in the county, 1,328,904.43 acres are land and 206,420 acres are water, comprised of streams and rivers often connecting small to moderate-sized lakes. The county is bordered on the north by Ontario Province, Canada, on the east by Cook County, Minnesota, on the south by the western side of Lake Superior, and on the west by St. Louis County, Minnesota. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) occupies much of the northern third of the county and lies within the larger Superior National Forest. The Finland State Forest covers most of the south-central part of the county and other smaller state and county preserves are present. There are few communities in the county. The county seat, Two Harbors, is located at the shore of Lake Superior about 28 miles northeast of Duluth and about 50 miles south of the project area. Other small towns and villages are Alger, Beaver Bay, Cramer, Finland, Highland, Illigen City, Isabella, Knife River, Larsmont, Little Marais, McNair, Murphy City, Norshor Junction, Silver Bay, Stewart, Waldo, Wales, and Whyte. All are in the south half of the county. There are no towns or villages in the project area. Winton and Ely, located at the east side of St. Louis County, are the closest towns to the two sites at a distance of about 15 miles.

1.    Geology

The project area is within the Border Lakes physiographic province of northeastern Minnesota (Wright 1972:561). The region, which lies within the Canadian Shield, includes numerous lakes formed by glacial erosion that deepened weak zones parallel to the layered gabbro bedrock. The lakes are often joined by rivers. Lakes in this physiographic province tend to be oriented east to west. However, the lakes in the project area, within the south central part of the region, do not follow this pattern. The landform is regionally flat, but locally rugged.

The area is in the Upper Watershed of the Rainy River drainage system (Waters 1977:77). The Stony River flows north and west from its headwaters in central Lake County to Birch Lake. Birch Lake is connected to a series of lakes that drain northward to the Rainy River at the border between the United States and Ontario Province, Canada. Lakes and rivers in the area are fed by numerous short streams, usually 10 to 15 miles in length.

The bedrock of the project area is Late Precambrian in age. The bedrock has been attributed to the Duluth Complex, a sill of gabbroic rock about 16 kilometers thick that forms a broad arc from Duluth to Ely and back to Lake Superior at Pigeon Point near Grand Portage (Ojakangas and Matsch 1982:55, 167). The stone of the Duluth Complex are mostly coarse-grained, dark gray to black igneous rocks, such as basalt and gabbro (Ojakangas and Matsch 1982:174). The complex was formed by a series of volcanic intrusions between older Middle Precambrian rock and the North Shore Volcanic Group about 1,100 million years ago. The thick basaltic deposits of the region have created a long magnetic and gravity anomaly of higher values due to the greater density of the basalt compared to adjacent rocks and the magnetite in the basalt (Ojakangas and Matsch 1982:50). At the northwest margin of the complex, between Ely and Hoyt Lakes, large deposits of low grade copper and nickel have been found at the base of the complex (Ojakangas and Matsch 1982:139). The Duluth Complex forms a high plateau that escaped glaciation late in Wisconsin time when the surrounding lower areas were filled with ice (Wright 1972:518).

The surface topography in the project area is formed by the presence of the Vermillion Moraine. This moraine is composed of two parts, an east-west running end moraine, with a large sheet of ground moraine located to the north of it. The material that composes the Vermillion Moraine is a bouldery, coarse-textured, brown-colored drift, rich in gabbro, granite, and greenstone and including iron-formation and metasediments (Ojakangas and Matsch 1982). This material was left by the actions of the Rainy Lobe of the Late Wisconsinan glaciation between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago as it moved back to the northeast. The St Croix Lumber Company dam (Site 21LAOg) is located on the end moraine, while the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp (Site 21LA526) is on the sheet moraine to the north.

2.    Soils

The county soil survey for Lake County has not been completed. Soils in the project area are generally classified as silty or loamy over rock and are well-drained. At the St. Croix Lumber Company dam and the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp, Mulholland and Donahue (2003:14) identified the soils as probably Toivala series (University of Minnesota 1981). At the dam site, Mulholland and Donahue found dark brown fine sandy silt over dark yellow brown silt with a few large rocks in Shovel Test 1 and a thin layer of duff over a shallow A horizon of dark brown sandy silt and gravel over a yellow brown silt and gravel in Shovel Test 2. They found large rocks at the interface of the A horizon and C horizon. At the ECW/CCC camp, they identified 10 to 20 centimeters of very dark brown to black sandy silt and small gravels over reddish brown fine sand and large rocks. At the two site areas, the soils appear to not have been well developed and/or were highly disturbed by erosion and human construction activities.

3.    Climate and Ecology

The climate and ecology of the region changed during the glacial and interglacial periods. Periods of warmer temperatures, less precipitation, and strong westerly winds occurred between 8,000 and 6,000 years ago and again from 4,800 to 4,300 years ago (Dean et al. 1997). A moister climate occurred between 4,000 and 1,000 years ago and the last 1500 years has been characterized by short-term drought conditions. Records taken over the last 150 years for the region indicate that the annual precipitation ranges from 28 to 30 inches; about 40 percent of which occurs during late spring through late summer. The growing season is only about 106 to 121 days in the project area (University of Minnesota 1981).

In the mid-1800s the vegetation of the area was dominated by white and yellow (Norway) pine (Marschner 1974). Bogs and wetlands were vegetated by spruce, cedar, tamarack, and balsam fir (jack pine). Much of the white pine and Norway pine in the county was timbered between 1893 and 1920, although major logging continued into the 1940s (Bishop 2000:119, 126). Currently the region is forested on the uplands and upper terraces by ash, aspen, birch, cedar, maple, oak, poplar, red pine, spruce, and white pine, with a thick understory of ash, alder, cherry, ground hemlock, hazel, maple, and willow. Wetlands are dominated by ash, balsam, black spruce, tamarack, and willows among reeds, marsh grass, and other herbaceous plants. Birch and aspen are pioneer species, which sometimes dominate areas subject to forest fire. Efforts by the U.S. Forest Service and Minnesota conservation agencies to plant millions of red and white pine seedlings since the 1930s have helped to reestablish pine forests in many areas devastated by fire in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

The wildlife of the area includes mammals such as moose, whitetail deer, black bears, gray wolves, fox, lynx, badger, woodchuck, raccoon, skunk, beaver, muskrat, otter, fisher, mink, martin, snowshoe and cottontail rabbit, squirrel, and field mice (Lynott et al. 1986). Woodland caribou has been extinct in northern Minnesota since the 1940s (National Park Service 1978:72) and elk, bison, cougar, and wolverine have been extirpated. Birds include bald eagle, peregrine falcon, heron, egret, swan, Canadian goose, loon, mallard, teal, as well as black-backed woodpecker, crow, raven, cardinal, bluejay, robin, sparrow, hummingbird, wren, and finch. Common fish species are muskellunge, northern pike, lake sturgeon, lake trout, brook trout, small mouth bass, yellow perch, and tullibee. Reptiles include rattlesnakes, black snakes, grass snakes, box turtles, and softshell turtles. Amphibians include toads and frogs.

C.    CULTURAL HISTORICAL SETTING

Northeast Minnesota has a long cultural history and evidence of pre-contact peoples dating shortly after the last glacier receded from the area about 10,000 years ago has been found in the region. As the topic of this report is two historic sites, the St. Croix Lumber Company dam (Site 21LAOg) and the Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps Camp F-16 (Site 21LA526), this chapter will focus on the history of Lake County and the project area after 1660.

1.    Lake County Minnesota History

The first historic tribe known to have occupied in Lake County was the Dakota (Sioux) by about 1500. However, during the 1600s the Dakota began to be pushed farther west onto the prairie by eastern Algonquian tribes, especially the Ojibwe (Chippewa), who were being displaced east of Lake Superior by other tribes and European settlers. French traders and missionaries, such as Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du L’hut, sought to establish peace between the Dakota and Ojibwe after about 1670.

Grand Portage, located at the northeast tip of Minnesota, became the headquarters of the North West Company between 1775 and 1803. The American Fur Company succeeded the North West Company at Grand Portage from 1822 to 1833, when John Jacob Astor’s charter expired. By 1861 the post was owned and operated by H.H. McCullough. The American Fur Company also had a post on Hoist Bay of Basswood Lake to supply traders at Fall Lake, Burntside Lake, Vermillion Lake, and Shagawa Lake. The Hudson Bay Company operated a competing post on Basswood Lake (Bishop 2000:3).

In 1835, the reorganized American Fur Company established major fishing posts at Grand Portage, Grand Marais, and Isle Royale, smaller fishing posts along the western shore of Lake Superior, and a fishery headquarters at La Point, now Superior, Wisconsin (Bishop 2000:4). Depressed markets created by the new fisheries resulted in the end of commercial fishing in the area by 1842.

Although Minnesota became part of the United States as a result of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the international border between the United States and Canada was not established until the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1843 (Bishop 2000:4). Minnesota Territory was established in 1849. It included the area from Lake Superior and the present boundary of Wisconsin west to the Missouri River in the eastern half of the Dakotas, and north of Iowa. Lake County was included in Itasca County, which included all of northeast Minnesota from Lake of the Woods south to the Mississippi River headwaters and the southern boundary of Pine County. The entire north shore was reserved as Indian Territory until 1855. That year the original Itasca County was subdivided into Itasca County on the west, Newton County at the center, and St. Louis County on the east.

On March 1, 1856, St. Louis County, which included modern Lake and Cook counties, was renamed Lake County and Newton County became St. Louis County (Bishop 2000:5). German and Swiss immigrants (via Toledo, Ohio and Superior, Wisconsin) established a community at Beaver Bay in 1856. The village became the first county seat and served as the government center for the entire north shore until 1882. Cook County was established from the eastern half of Lake County in 1874, but did not form a county board of commissioners until 1882 (Bishop 2000:6). Two Harbors was established in 1885 at Agate Bay and became the Lake County seat. Two Harbors became a port at the terminus of the Duluth & Iron Range Railroad, built by Charlemagne Tower to ship iron ore from the Tower mines near Vermillion Lake in northeast St. Louis County. The railroad also connected Two Harbors with Duluth along the lake shore. The Duluth & Northern Minnesota Railroad was constructed across southern Lake County by the Alger-Smith Lumber Company to transport timber as well as serve as a common carrier (King 1981:21).

Efforts to lure people into the area were only partially successful. As late as 1912 the county included few towns. The city of Two Harbors, (population 4,990), the village of Knife River (population of 491), and the hamlet of Beaver Bay, were all on the shore of Lake Superior (State Bureau of Immigration 1912:83). Isabella was a hamlet on the Stony River at the center of Lake County that was homesteaded by Finnish immigrants in 1912 (Bishop 200:118). The population in 1910 was 8,011 persons, of which 3,134 were native born. Immigrants included 1,364 Swedes, 677 Irish, 479 Norwegians, 351 Finnish, 139 Austrians, 87 Germans, 23 Danes, and 19 other foreigners. Most of the men worked in the logging, mining, or fishing industries. In 1912 there were only 210 farms and 2,435 acres under cultivation. Livestock for the county in 1911 included 377 horses, 119 cattle, 137 swine, and 11 sheep. Although the land was advertised as very productive with “a rich, dark loam with a clay subsoil,” in reality, the soil of most of the county was agriculturally inadequate, being thin, rocky, and full of stumps and roots. On January 1, 1912, the county offered 154,625.57 acres of unsold state school lands and 36,302 acres of government land available for homesteading (State Bureau of Immigration 1912:83). Root crops, such as potatoes, rutabagas, beets, and carrots thrived in the short growing season, but grain crops fared less well. Surplus produce and dairy products were sold to logging camps being established in the area by the St. Croix Lumber Company of Winton, Minnesota. Farmers also began to work during the winter for the company (Bishop 2000:119). Trapping provided another important source of income during the late fall and winter months.

Logging has been an important industry in Lake County. Much of the county was once covered with stands of white pine, but stands of red pine and jack pine also were intermixed with spruce, fir, cedar, tamarack, aspen, birch, maple, and other commercial species. Pine was milled primarily for construction, while cedar and tamarack were milled for railroad ties (Ryan 1976a:41). The earliest logging company camps and mills were established near Lake Superior. The Whipsaw Mill was established at Beaver Bay in 1856, the J.C. Hubbard Mill at Two Harbors in 1857, and the Wieland Brothers Mill at Beaver Bay in 1859 (Peters et al. 1983:154). Early logging companies operating in the interior of the county were the Knox Lumber Company (1894-1899), the St. Croix Lumber Company (1899-1923) and the Swallow & Hopkins Lumber Company (1898-1922). The Alger-Smith Company had logging camps east of Dumbbell Lake in the 1910s. North Star Timber of Kimberly-Clark and the Northwest Paper Company operated large logging camps in the area in the 1920 and 1930s. Tomahawk Timber built camps east of Birch Lake and established Forest Center at Lake Isabella during World War II (Bishop 2000:119). There are many publications and reports regarding the logging industry in Minnesota and Wisconsin, such as Birk (1996), Fries (1989), King (1981), Larson (1949), Minnesota Historical Society (1998), Nelligan (1969), Peters (1983), Ryan (1976a, 1976b), and Stanchfield (1901) and the reader is referred to these sources.

Roads were few and rough in Lake County. The St. Croix Lumber Company built a tote road (later known as the St. Croix Road and the Ely-Finland Road) between Isabella and Ely to transport supplies, equipment, and personnel. In 1910, the Lake County Highway Department took over maintenance of the tote road and established a maintenance camp at Chub Lake with a bunkhouse and cookhouse (Lindahl 2003). In 1920, Governor J.A.O. Preus authorized construction of a county road to connect the north shore at Illigen City with Ely. Trunk Highway 1, which improved the original tote road, was completed in 1923 and attracted fishermen and tourists. In 1925, State Trunk Highway 61 (the Lake Superior International Highway) was built between Duluth and Grand Portage. By the late 1930s, Trunk Highway 2 connected T.H. 1 to Two Harbors (Bishop 2000:119). During the 1930s, the Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps improved the highways (Lindahl 2003).

2.    St. Croix Lumber Company

The St. Croix Lumber Company was established in 1899 by three brothers, Martin, Ernest, and Burt Torinus, of Stillwater, Minnesota, when they bought the Knox Lumber Company interest at Winton (Wognum 1976:10). In 1893, Samuel Knox, R.V. Whiteside, and William Winton had established the Knox Lumber Company, constructed a large lumber and lath mill at Fall Lake, Minnesota, and began logging timber in the area. Soon the Duluth & Iron Range Railroad constructed a short line to the mill from Ely. Between 1896 and 1898, the Knox mill produced 15 million board feet of lumber. In 1899, the mill was enlarged to produce 50 million board feet per year.

The original St. Croix Lumber Company was begun in 1838 by Franklin Steele and six other lumbermen who hoped to supply Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri with lumber from the St. Croix River area (Swanholm 1978:8). They erected a saw mill at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin Territory. Louis Tornius, who had built a steam saw mill at Stillwater, Minnesota (Torius, Staples & Company) eventually became part of the St. Croix Lumber Company (Folsom 1888:360).

After the purchase of the Knox Lumber Company, the St. Croix Lumber Company began to log the area of Burntside Lake, the south shore of Fall lake, the Fernberg and North Kawishiwi areas, and the Stony River watershed. A severe drought in 1910, which made it impossible to float the logs timbered on the Stony River, complaints about logging pollution, and inefficient management of the company prompted the Torinus brothers to sell the St. Croix Lumber Company to the Edward Hines Lumber Company of Chicago. The operation was reorganized as the St. Croix Lumber & Manufacturing Company. After 1911, the new company expanded its logging east of Basswood Lake into the Kekekabic, Fraser, and Thomas lakes areas and purchased rights on rail and water systems developed by Swallow & Hopkins. The St. Croix Lumber & Manufacturing Company remained in the Isabella area until about 1918 (Bishop 2000:119). The St. Croix Lumber & Manufacturing Company closed in 1923 (Bishop 2000:126-129) and the mills were dismantled (Wognum 1976:11).

The St. Croix Lumber Company was not the only major operation in the area.  In 1898 George C. Swallow of Minneapolis and Louis J. Hopkins of Duluth established the Swallow & Hopkins Lumber Company at Fall Lake just inside Lake County and east of the St. Croix mill. Their mill produced 30 to 35 million board feet per year. In 1914, the collection of boarding houses, homes, and businesses clustered around the mills, which were populated by 2,000 residents, was named Winton (Bishop 200:126). The Swallow & Hopkins sold their operation to the Cloquet Lumber Company in 1922 and the mill was closed (Bishop 2000:129).

During the winter months as many as ten large logging camps were operated by the St. Croix Lumber Company, employing about 1,200 men. Eight tugs were used to tow rafts of logs down a total of 90 miles of waterways (Wognum 1976:10). The camp on Slate Lake was the headquarters for the operations on the Stony River (Lindahl 2003). Several steam haulers were based at the camp to pull sleighs of logs to frozen lakes where the timber was stacked. Once the ice was out, the logs were floated downstream. Large booms held the logs in place until they were ready to be moved. The dam at the west end of Slate Lake was constructed to facilitate movement of logs down the Stony River from the lake toward Birch Lake, the South Kawishiwi River, White Iron Lake, and eventually Fall Lake and the sawmill at Winton, Minnesota. The dam was one of a series of similar structures on the river.

By 1923, Trunk Highway 1 crossed the Stony River at the dam, which was still at least partially functional as some pooling made Slate Lake larger than its current size (Bishop 2000:119; Mulholland and Donahue 2003:27). The north and south wings of the dam were incorporated into the roadway. An extension of the dam to the east may have been used to sort and count logs.

3.    Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps

When Franklin D. Roosevelt was sworn in as the 32nd President of the United States on March 4, 1933, approximately one quarter of the estimated 52 million workers in the country were listed as unemployed. Fifty-four percent of men between age 17 and 25 were without work or were supplementing their families’ income with poor jobs at the lowest wages in decades. At the same time, farmers were facing the lowest farm commodity figures in ten years. In Minnesota, 29 percent of the one million workers were unemployed. In the Iron Range, unemployment was 70 percent. Some 137,000 families were seeking relief in Minnesota at the cost of at least $9 million (Drake 1987:9). Environmentally, the nation was in desperate need for significant conservation measures to reverse the impacts farming, ranching, and logging methods that had resulted in the Dust Bowl years and massive forest fires which had destroyed millions of acres of second growth woodlands at the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century.

On March 21, 1933, President Roosevelt requested the 73rd U.S. Congress to enact legislation that would (a) enroll unemployed persons for public employment not to interfere with normal employment demands, (b) provide grants to states for relief, and (c) initiate a broad public works program creating a need for labor. As part of the Federal Relief Administration that Roosevelt proposed, he suggested creation of a civilian conservation corps that would confine its work to forestry, prevention of soil erosion, flood control, and similar projects. The work would be done through the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, Labor, and War. Congress embraced this program and passed the law on March 31, 1933. On April 5, 1933, Executive Order 6106 was signed by President Roosevelt. The Relief of Unemployment through the Performance of Useful Public Works Act appropriated $10 million and established the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) program, popularly known from the beginning as the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) (Otis et al. 1986:6-7). The success of the ECW/CCC was so evident after the first year that Congress extended the program until March 1937 with a new ceiling of 600,000 enrollees (Leake 1980:3-4). The Civilian Conservation Corps was not formally created until April 1939 and remained a temporary program. Congress extended the CCC as an independent, funded agency for two more years in 1939, but continued to view it as a temporary relief organization (Leake 1980:6). Between 1939 and 1941 Congress place the enrollee ceiling at 300,000 men (Leake 1980:7).

President Roosevelt appointed Robert Fechner as National Director of the ECW/CCC program in April 1933. An Advisory Council was formed which was composed of representatives of the Secretaries of Agriculture, Interior, Labor, and War. Fechner was given complete authority, but President Roosevelt retained final approval in some areas and decisions, such as the location of camps (Leake 1980:2). Fechner served as Director until his death on December 31, 1939. His assistant, John T. McEntee, was appointed as the new Director (Leake 1980:6-7).

The Department of Labor was charged with selection of individuals for enrollment. The War Department was responsible for physical conditioning, transportation, supplies, and camp construction and administration. This department also handled the (Army) recruiting offices. The Army used reserve officers to take command of the ECW/CCC program (Leake 1980:1). The Department of Agriculture was responsible for planning and conducting work projects on national forests, state, and private lands and for field training. The Department of the Interior was responsible for projects and training within its jurisdiction, including all state, county, and local park lands. Native Americans were placed under the Office of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior (Drake 1987:10; Otis et al. 1986:7).

Recruitment for the program was conducted at the state level through an agency and quota designated by the Department of Labor. Each state established a local quota and appointed another local agency to supervise the application procedures. In 1939, selection of enrollees was transferred to the new Office of the Civilian Conservation Corps Director. In July 1939, the ECW, now officially the Civilian Conservation Corps, changed from an independent federal agency to part of the newly formed Federal Security Agency as part of President Roosevelt’s reorganization plan. Reserve Army officers, who administered the camps, were replaced with civilian company commanders. In most cases, the reserve officers on duty resigned from the Army and remained on the job (McEntee 1942:28).

Nine Army Corps Areas were established in 1933: First Corps included Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Second Corps included New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. Third Corps included Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. Fourth Corps included the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Fifth Corps included West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. Sixth Corps included Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Seventh Corps included Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. Eighth Corps included Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming east of the Rockies. Ninth Corps included California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and western Wyoming (Otis et al. 1986:7-9). The territories of Alaska and Hawaii were presumably included in the Ninth Corps Area. Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands were probably included in the Fourth Corps Area.

The Seventh Corps Area of the ECW/CCC, which included Minnesota, had its headquarters in Omaha, Nebraska. The statewide headquarters was at Fort Snelling in 1933. In 1937, the headquarters was moved to Grand Rapids (Drake 1987:11). In Minnesota, Federal camps were administered through the National Forest Supervisors Headquarters and then through their ranger districts. State camps worked through a special office in the State Division of Forestry in St. Paul and then through the forest supervisors and ranger offices. G.M. Conzet, Director of the Division of Forestry, appointed Robert Smith to be director of the Minnesota ECW/CCC. Smith and his staff recruited former logging camp foremen to direct forestry projects. Most ECW/CCC forestry camps had five logging foremen, an engineer, and at least one forester (Ryan 1987:15). In 1936, Les Beatty replaced Smith as State Director of ECW/CCC (Nelson and Sommer 1987:16). Minnesota created 13 state forests to legally request establishment of ECW/CCC camps in the state (National Register nomination 1991:E-16).

Applicants to the ECW/CCC program had to be United States citizens, physically sound, unemployed, unmarried, and between age 18 and 25. They also had to demonstrate their need for enrollment. In 1937, the age limit for junior enrollees was amended to 17 to 23 years. Men no longer had to come from relief families, but they still and to be unemployed and in need of employment (McEntee 1942:28). Although policy dictated that discrimination by color, race, creed, or politics was forbidden, blacks and other ethnic minorities found difficulties in the program. In the early years, camps were integrated, but local complaints, views of the U.S. Army and program administrators led to the disbandment of nearly all integrated camps in July 1935. Black camps were routinely segregated from white camps. Many of the black camps were established on military reservations. Most camp officers were white. Blacks were given few leadership positions, and most of these were only as foremen for non-technical work. A total of 250,000 blacks participated in the program. Mexican-Americans also were discriminated against to a lesser degree and most often in southwestern states (Otis et al. 1986:7-8). Native Americans were originally excluded from the program, but during the first year the program was extended to include 14,000 Native Americans (Leake 1980:3). Women were never included in the ECW/CCC (Otis et al. 1986:8).

Enlistment was for six months, with reenlistment up to a maximum of two years. The bulk of the work force was taken from large urban centers. Enrollees were given food, clothing, housing, and paid $30 per month, at least $25 of which had to be sent to a dependent. Single young men without dependents were required to deposit $22 of their monthly pay, subject to later repayment (McEntee 1942:28). Illiterate men were taught to read and write. Enrollees were offered the opportunity for vocational training and further education. The U.S. Forest Service conducted seminars and workshops of forestry. Later, camp education advisors and assistants were appointed and ties were established with universities to implement extension services (Otis et al. 1986:11). Approximately 11,500 courses in 150 subjects were taught (Brown 1941). Individuals were commonly sent to a camp in his own state or a neighboring state, but could be sent anywhere men were needed to form a company (Drake 1987:11; Otis et al. 1986:9). In addition to the young enrollees, older, local experienced men, such as lumberjacks, blacksmiths, stonemasons, and carpenters, were enrolled to work at the camps or to train and supervise groups of enrollees during specific projects. About 25,000 of these men were enlisted in 1933 (Leake 1980:3). On May 11, 1933, President Roosevelt authorized immediate enrollment of 25,000 veterans of World War I, with no age or marital restrictions. These men were organized at separate camps to perform duties suited to their age and physical condition. About 225,000 veterans eventually participated in the program (Leake 1980:3-4).

The speed at which the program was activated was amazing. The initial national enrollment began on April 7, 1933, two days after the Executive Order 6106 was signed, and within days 25,000 men from 16 cities in the easternmost seven corps areas were enlisted (Leake 1980:1; Otis et al. 1986:7-8). Within eight days, sites for the first 50 camps on eastern and southern national forests were approved. By August 1933, a total of 1,406 camps for 281,200 men were established in the continental United States. At that time, 12,200 men were at 61 camps in Minnesota: 24 camps located on national forests, 24 camps on state forests, nine federal camps for erosion and flood control, three camps on state parks, and one camp on forested private land (Otis et al. 1986:11). The camps were established in the area of the primary work to be performed by the company. One the work was done in an area, the camp was closed and the men moved to another project area to establish a new camp (Justin 2004). Appendix C lists the camps established in Minnesota. At the end of 1935, there were over 2,650 camps in operation, with 505,782 enrollees and some 95,000 staff and administrators. On average, 1,643 camps were working each year, with a total of 4,500 camps being built (Justin 2004). Eventually there were camps in all states, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands (Leake 1980:3).

The U.S. military was the only federal institution with sufficient materiél, transportation, and organizational infrastructure to immediately mobilize the ECW/CCC program. It was natural, therefore, that the U.S. Army was assigned responsibility for construction of camps, supply, administration, sanitation, medical care, hospitalization, and welfare. The U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and other agencies were responsible for actual work projects, technical planning and execution, training, and supervision of the work forces (Otis et al. 1986:8). The organization of the enrollees and the terms applied to various leaders and workers reflected the Army’s command structure. Enrollees were organized in companies of 200 men under the command of officers. Figure 3 shows the manner in which a typical company organized (Otis 1986:8, Figure 2).

The company commander was generally an Army Reserve 1st lieutenant or captain who was assisted by a 1st lieutenant or 2nd lieutenant, regular or reserve sergeants, a doctor, clerks, and cooks. Forestry camps included a camp superintendent who was in charge of a camp crew of engineers, construction assistants, auto and truck mechanics, foremen, and work leaders. Local experienced men (or LEMs), who supplemented the foremen, lived at home in the surrounding communities. Usually each forestry camp included up to 25 Army personnel and 30 forestry staff. (Drake 1987:12).

Each ECW/CCC camp was identified by letters and numbers indicating their classification regarding land ownership or type of work (Otis eta al. 1986:9). For example, camps located on national forest lands began with an “F” for “federal” (i.e. F-1, F-17, F-40 etc.). Camps on state forest lands began with an “S” for “state”(i.e. S-2, S-22, S-30, etc.). Camps within state parks began with “SP,” and black camps began with “NIRA”. Camp numbers were assigned by the states. Table 1 lists the various camp designations. Each ECW/CCC company also was assigned a number by the state which reflected the corps area and order in which the company was formed. For example, Minnesota companies, which located  in the  Seventh  Corps Area,  were  numbered  in  the 700, 1700, 2700, 3700, and 4700 series (i.e.

Figure 3:   Organization of ECW/CCC Companies


TABLE 1

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP DESIGNATIONS

Designation

Supervising Agency

Land Ownership and Work Area

 

 

 

F

USDA Forest Service

National Forest

S

USDA Forest Service and State

State Forest

P

USDA Forest Service and State

Private Forest

A

USDA National Agricultural Research Center

National Agricultural Research Center

AI

USDA Forest Service and Bureau of Animal Industry

US Range Livestock Experiment Station

NA

USDA Forest Service and Bureau of Plant Industry

National Arboretum

TVA

USDA Forest Service and Tennessee Valley Authority

Public and Private Land

SCS

USDA Soil Conservation Service

Public and Private Land

TVA-P

National Park Service and Tennessee Valley Authority

State Land

NP

National Park Service

National Park, National Historical Park, Military Park, and National Monument

MA

National Park Service

Metropolitan Area

SP

National Park Service

State Park

CP

National Park Service

County Park

BS

Bureau of Biological Survey

Federal Game Refuge

BR

Bureau of Reclamation

Federal Reclamation Projects

G

Grazing Service

Public Range Lands

GLO

General Land Office

Public Domain and Oregon and California Land Grant

E

USDA Forest Service and Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

Private

From Otis et al. 1986:12, Table 2

701, 710, 1720, 2710, 3703, or 4707). Most camps also had an informal name assigned by a company for its geographical location or a special individual, such as Camp Isabella (F-17), which was located on the Little Isabella River, or Camp Charles (S-51), named for Company 719’s commanding officer, 1st Lieutenant Grovesnor Charles.

Camp construction, designs for permanent, semi-permanent, and portable camps were very specific. Detailed directions on ground clearing and the dimensions and materials for structures were provided to the officers in charge by 1934. Although the camps were originally intended to use only canvas tents to control costs, the Army and the American Forest Products Company demonstrated the cost feasibility of wooden structures. Initially, rigid or fixed-type buildings were constructed to replace tent camps. However, by November 1934, construction of portable wooden buildings was begun at camps in 46 states (Otis et al. 1986:8). By 1935 portable buildings were standard. Table 2 lists the dimensions of the portable camp buildings as reported in a 1937 directive. Portable buildings were determined to be preferable to rigid construction buildings because they were easy to erect and to dismantle to move to a new location. The sections of the portable buildings were secured with long bolts. By 1938, five, 120 by 20-foot barracks buildings replaced the four, 130 by 20-foot buildings for enrollees (Otis et al. 1986:79).

According to the general building specifications, portable structures rarely had foundations. They apparently were constructed on concrete pads or on pier supports. Board and batten or clapboard siding was used. Roofing was tarpaper or shingles. Wall paneling was 1 x 6-inch horizontal sheathing, shiplap, or tongue-and-groove vertical sheathing. Windows had six panes and swung out (Otis et al. 1986:79).

Table 3 lists the dimensions of ECW/CCC buildings erected at Camp Norris (S-60) in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota.   Camp Norris is  one of two  relatively intact ECW/CCC camps  remaining in

TABLE 2

DIMENSIONS OF PORTABLE CCC CAMP BUILDINGS IN 1937

 

 

LENGTH

 

WIDTH

STRUCTURE

 

(feet)

(meters)

 

(feet)

(meters)

Headquarters Building

 

30.00

9.14

 

20.00

6.10

Welfare Building

 

100.00

30.48

 

20.00

6.10

Officers’ Quarters

 

40.00

12.19

 

20.00

6.10

Forestry Agents’ Quarters

 

80.00

24.38

 

20.00

6.10

Barracks (4)

 

130.00

39.62

 

20.00

6.10

Mess Hall and Kitchen

 

160.00

48.77

 

20.00

6.10

Dispensary

 

30.00

9.14

 

20.00

6.10

School Building

 

60.00

18.29

 

20.00

6.10

Storehouse

 

40.00

12.19

 

20.00

6.10

Lavatory and Bathhouse

 

35.00

10.67

 

20.00

6.10

Latrine

 

15.00

4.57

 

10.00

3.05

Using Service Headquarters

 

30.00

9.14

 

20.00

6.10

Using Service Storehouse

 

30.00

9.14

 

20.00

6.10


                        Adapted from Otis et al. 1986:79

TABLE 3

 DIMENSIONS OF ECW/CCC BUILDINGS AT NORRIS CAMP (S-60)

 

 

LENGTH

 

WIDTH

 

STRUCTURE

 

(feet)

(meters)

 

(feet)

(meters)

CONSTRUCTION

Enrollee Barracks (7)

 

74.00

22.56

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structures

Officers’ Quarters

 

40.00

12.19

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Forestry Quarters

 

50.00

15.24

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Field Office & Supply Room

 

74.00

22.56

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Warehouse

 

74.00

22.56

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Hospital

 

55.00

16.76

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Kitchen

 

40.00

12.19

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Mess Hall

 

110.00

33.53

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Recreation Building

 

74.00

22.56

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Latrine & Wash House

 

62.00

18.90

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Tool House

 

40.00

12.19

 

24.00

7.32

Frame Structure

Repair Garage

 

44.00

13.41

 

36.00

10.97

Frame Structure

Storage Garage (2)

 

70.00

21.34

 

25.00

7.62

Frame Structures

Storage Garage (2)

 

76.00

23.17

 

26.00

7.93

Frame Structures

Blacksmith Shop

 

36.00

10.97

 

30.00

9.14

Frame Structure

Power House

 

20.00

6.10

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Shed

 

20.00

6.10

 

20.00

6.10

Frame Structure

Water Tower

 

--

--

 

--

--

16-Foot-High Frame

Structure with Tank

        Adapted from Norris Camp, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 1994

the state. The camp served as the state operational headquarters for the Resettlement Administration between 1936 and 1942 (National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, Norris Camp 1994:8).

Tent camps frequently combined more permanent wood-frame service buildings with tent barracks (Otis et al. 1986:71). The arrangement of particular tents or buildings varied according to local conditions and the available supplies, but each camp typically included an administration building, an infirmary or first aid station, a kitchen, a mess hall, officers’ or staff quarters, men’s barracks, a school, a blacksmith shop, a supply warehouse, a motor pool or garage, a powerhouse, a well house or pumping station, a laundry, a shower house, and latrines. The flagpole was always at the head of the camp near the administration building. Officers’ quarters and enrollee barracks were in straight rows, often facing each other. Forestry personnel had their own barracks. Tents were staked close to each other. Some camps had a recreation center, canteen or post exchange, a basketball court, or a ball field. Buildings were often connected by boardwalks or by cinder or gravel paths. Drainage and water lines were constructed and electrical and telephone lines were strung. The first ECW/CCC camp buildings in Minnesota were generally crude structures constructed from local materials and raw timber (Drake 1987:12).

Thirty six tents were used to house 200 enrollees, with five men per tent (Otis et al. 1986:72). The average tent was 16 by 16 feet in size, with one-inch-thick floor boards and 2x4-inch or 2x6-inch floor joists, studs, and rafters. Where tents were used as winter or moderate weather quarters, wooden siding or clapboards were added at the sides to a height of 2.5 feet. A wood-burning Sibley stove was located near the center of the tent on a clay-fill foundation and the stoves had metal flues, and spark arresters. The roof was lined with sheet iron.

When frame barracks were constructed, each building housed between 16 and 60 men, depending on the size of the structure. Bunks were arranged against the walls and a barrel stove was set at the center of the open room. Each man had a foot locker, usually placed at the foot of the bed. Electric lights were supplied from a gas generator that powered batteries behind the mess hall (Raihala 1984:2-3).

Each new enrollee was issued two sets of uniforms when he arrived at camp, one set for winter and the other set for summer. The winter set was made of good-quality wool to keep the men warm even when working in sub-zero temperatures. The summer uniform was made of heavy-grade cotton to be durable in the brush and timber. Originally the uniforms were surplus olive drab Army fatigue uniforms with the 1917 “pistol-leg” cut, styled like riding breeches. The men disliked the trousers and often modified them with strips of blankets to be more conventional in the leg (McEntee 1942:28). In 1939, the uniforms were changed to spruce green and cut similar to National Park Service uniforms. The men also were issued a dress uniform, two pairs of shoes, three pairs of socks, two heavy underwear, two hats, a raincoat, a heavy overcoat, mittens, woolen blankets, sheets, and a pillow (Drake 1987:11). Each man was responsible for washing his own clothes, which was done by hand. Wet clothes were usually hung in the barracks to dry (Raihala 1984:3). The men were well fed and most gained weight during their enlistment.

In the national forests, ECW/CCC enrollees assisted with fire protection by fighting fires and clearing brush. They helped with plant disease and insect control, planted trees, took tree inventories, surveyed, and mapped forest cover. They built campgrounds, dug wells, laid water and wastewater lines, and built swimming pools, fireplaces, picnic shelters, baseball diamonds, and restrooms. Enrollees cleared streams, constructed wildlife refuges, and built structures for flood and soil erosion control. The ECW/CCC companies provided limited public service projects or assisted WPA projects in the surrounding communities. They also assisted local law enforcement with search parties for lost individuals.

The enrollees were woken at 6:00 am during the week. After calisthenics came breakfast and policing of the camp area before roll call and inspection. By 8:00 am, they were on their way to their work projects. Lunch was served in the field over the noon hour. The men were returned to the camp by 4:00 pm. Dinner was at 5:30 pm. Classes were given after dinner. The men could leave camp in the evening, but were required to be back in the barracks by 10:00 pm.

Enrollees could buy film, toiletries, soft drinks and beer at the camp canteen as well as from local communities. Regular trips were made to nearby towns in company trucks for Saturday night dances. Each camp had a library with hundreds books and magazines as well as local and national newspapers. Most camps published their own newspaper. Some camps had their own band or orchestra. Camps fielded teams in baseball, football, basketball, volleyball, tennis, ice hockey, and boxing.

By 1941, the number of applicants for the CCC was low as the economy improved and many enrollees left to take jobs. In late summer 1941, there were less than 200,000 enrollees in about 900 camps. The need to allocate funds and equipment to the Second World War following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, prompted Congress to discontinue funding (Leake 1980:7). The Labor-Federal Security Administration Appropriation Act officially ended the Civilian Conservation Corps program on June 30, 1942 as the United States mobilized men and equipment for the war. The enrollees were discharged and many were reassigned to military work. Camps were closed or were soon phased out. The War Department claimed most of the equipment, although the Labor Department and Civil Aeronautics Administration also were given opportunity to acquire former CCC properties (Otis et al. 1986:11-12).

The benefits of the Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps program were tremendous, multifaceted, and pervasive throughout the country. Over $72 million in allotments made to the dependents of the enrollees in just the first year of the program improved the situation at home. Although the program cost $3 billion over nine years, nearly 15 million families were removed from welfare rolls and three million young men were employed. A total of 84,000 Minnesotans participated in the program and $85 million were spent in the state (Drake 1987:14). Local purchases of goods in communities close to camps averaged $5,000 each month and saved many small businesses. Erosion control protected over 20 millions of acres of federal, state, and local lands and parks and 84.4 million acres of agricultural land were reclaimed. Recreation facilities were constructed at countless national, state, county, and metropolitan parks. More than 1.3 billion trees were planted. Some 97,000 miles of truck roads were built and miles of other roads were repaired. Telephone lines were erected and water and sewer lines were installed. Trails were made, 3,470 fire towers were constructed, and many forest and range fires were controlled. The men participated as rescue workers during several major floods, hurricanes, and blizzards, thereby saving hundred of lives and millions of dollars in potential livestock and property damage. Over 40,000 illiterate men were taught to read and write and thousands more obtained high school diplomas and vocational training (Leake 1980:2-5). In Minnesota, the ECW/CCC constructed 1,635 miles of forestry telephone lines and 3,900 miles of forestry roads. They inventoried over 3.7 million acres of forest lands and provided the first comprehensive forest inventory in the state. Thirty-five new state forests and parks were created, inventoried, marked, and improved (Drake 1987:14). One of the less recognized benefits of the ECW/CCC was the incidental preparation of the U.S. Army and millions of young men for mobilization and training for World War II.

4.    Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

ECW/CCC Company 1720 was organized at Fort Snelling, Minnesota on June 2, 1933. The 200 men in the company were commanded by Captain J.H. Hodge. The company was transported by train to Ely, Minnesota several days later. From Ely they traveled by truck to the site of their new camp. The camp was to be established at Dunnigan Lake by the Ely-Finland trail. However, the men and equipment were mistakenly unloaded three miles north of Dunnigan Lake at Little Spring Lake. After clearing brush, stumps, and rocks, the men set up a tent camp which included at least 18 conical canvas tents for the men and at least four small wall tents for the officers (Alleger n.d.:45-46).

By the end of June, work had begun in the Superior National Forest on tasks such as scalping trees, planting, fire prevention, removing hazards, vermin control, and construction of truck roads and telephone lines. On July 14, 1933, the company was increased by 34 local experienced men. On August 15th, Captain C.G. Hutchinson assumed command of the company. On September 30th, 99 men were honorably discharged from the company following their six-month enlistment. New enrollees brought the company strength back to 200 men. On November 10, 1933, 1st Lieutenant R.J. White replaced Captain Hutchinson as company commander. Other Army staff assigned to the camp included Lieutenant William E. Donegan, Lieutenant W.E. Villars, Lieutenant G.C. Hendrickson, M.D., Lieutenant N.S. Lieberman, M.D., Lieutenant E.J. McCann, M.D., 1st Lieutenant D.L. Jarrett (engineer), Corporal Wallace, and L.C. Timm, (educational advisor). Forestry staff included Superintendent W.O. Meyers, L.A. Homdstrom, H.H. Keiser, R.S. Donaldson, R.S. Richardson, and L.F. Haugland. On March 31, 1934, 123 men were honorably discharged. A contingent of 137 new enrollees joined the company on April 13, 1934 (Alleger n.d.:45-46).

In August 1933, the men began construction of an officers’ quarters, four enrollee barracks, a mess hall, a kitchen, a supply room, a hospital, an orderly room, a recreation hall, a garage, a wash and shower room, latrines, and “the largest root cellar in the northwest” at Camp F-16 (Alleger n.d.:45). The company was assisted local laborers. When cold and heavy snow came in November, construction of the officer’s barracks, part of the mess hall, the garage, and the root cellar were incomplete due to a shortage of lumber. The company used box lumber, logs, and celotex (a strong Bagasse cane fiberboard) to complete the structures. The miserable weather and lack of warm clothing kept the men confined to the camp for a month (Alleger n.d. 45-46).

The Laudenschlager photographs of Camp F-16 (Figures 4 through 11) show that the buildings were one-story structures usually with gable roofs. The roof on the officers’ quarters was hipped. The tool house was built of logs using a post and lintel system rather than a continuous rock or concrete foundation. Other buildings were frame structures with board and batten (recreation hall and officers’ quarters), tarpaper (Barracks No. 3), or wooden clapboards (officer’s mess) exteriors. The structures had plank doors and small square windows with 4 to 6 glass panes. The officers’ quarters building had both a brick chimney and a metal pipe chimney, while the recreation hall and barracks had only metal pipe chimneys. Electrical lines are evident in the photographs. Each ECW/CCC camp had generators in a power house to provide electricity to the various buildings. The administrative offices probably also had telephone service as soon as the lines were constructed by the program to local communities.

Company 1720 was transferred to Gooseberry Falls near Two Harbors on May 3, 1934. Lieutenant Jarrett initially took a detachment of 45 men to the new site. The company established a tent camp (SP-5) west of the Upper Falls within ten days. The camp included 33 conical tents, a hospital ward, three storage tents, three large wall tents, two small wall tents, and two latrines. A 200-foot-deep well was excavated through igneous rock. Construction of a mess hall, kitchen, pump house, bath house, and latrine began on June 4th. The company then began improvements in the park, including landscaping and construction of trails, roads, bath houses, shelters, picnic fireplaces and tables, benches, beaches, bridges, an athletic field, guard rails, camp sites, and dams (Alleger n.d.:46).

On July 22, 1934, Company 2710 established a second tent camp (SP-10) on the lake side of Trunk Highway 61 near the park entrance. Company 2710 moved to Camp SP-5 on September 30, 1934, when Company 1720 moved back to the Dunnigan Lake camp (Long and Henning 1995:8:1). The date the Dunnigan Lake camp was closed was not determined, but many camps in Minnesota were closed by 1937.

C.    PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS

Limited archaeological work has been done in the general project area. The Statewide Archaeological Survey did not include the Border Lakes region (Minnesota Historical Society 1981). According to Mulholland and Donahue (2003:6), most archaeological investigations have concentrated on areas south of the project area, particularly in the Reservoir Lakes north of Duluth (i.e. Mulholland and Shafer 2003). The Superior National Forest has completed surveys in the area of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) which demonstrated that lakeshores have high potential for pre-contact and contact sites (Okstad et al. 2000). Archaeological surveys along T.H. 1 by Superior National Forest staff have reported several sites and historic structures, including the St. Croix Lumber Company dam on the Stony River (21LAOg) and the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp (21LA526). The latter two sites were recorded in 1984. At that time, Stephen Mulholland drew a sketch of the remaining dam elements when the river was particularly low (Figure 12). He identified five sections of submerged planks and three sections of rock-filled timber cribbing in the dam and two rectangular rock and timber cribs east of the dam under the extant T.H. 1 bridge. Mulholland also drew a sketch of the structural remains and pits (23 features) identified at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp (Figure 13).

 

 

               Figure 4: Officers’ Quarters at Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

              Figure 5. Barracks No. 3 at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

                     Figure 6: Barracks No. 3 at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

In 2002, Leech Lake Heritage Sites Program archaeologists completed a Phase I survey at Bridge Number 5610, which crosses the South Kawishiwi River along T.H. 1. The bridge is at the north end of the proposed improvements to T.H. 1. No sites were found during the survey.

In 2003, the Duluth Archaeology Center (DAC) completed a Phase I survey for the proposed improvements to T.H. 1 (S.P. 3802-18). Included in the report (Mulholland and Donahue 2003) were completed Minnesota Archaeological Site Forms for Sites 21LAOg, 21LA526, and 21LA527, the Baird Ranger Station. The sketches of the dam and the ECW/CCC Camp were included in the Phase I report.


               Figure 7: Barracks Interior at the Caledonia SCS Camp

               Figure 8: Recreation Hall at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

               Figure 9: Recreation Hall at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

               Figure 10: Log Tool House at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

                   Figure 11: Officers’ Mess at the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp

D.    ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE POTENTIAL

1.    St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (Site 21LAOg)

Research indicated that the dam was constructed about 1899 and used by the St. Croix Lumber Company until 1910. The lumber company established its operations headquarters for the Stony River drainage at Slate Lake (Lindahl 2003). Camp 6, located on the upland about 250 meters north-northwest of the  dam  (USDA 1984),  may  have  been the  site of the  headquarters  or at  least quarters for the men

Figure 12:  Sketch of the St. Croix Lumber Company Dam (Mulholland and Donahue 2003)

operating and maintaining the dam. About 1923, the dam and wing dam were modified for reuse as part of the St. Croix Road/Ely to Finland Road. The dam superstructure was removed when the current route of T.H. 1 was constructed, leaving only the base of the dam cribbing in the riverbed. The apparent intense use of the dam suggested that other remains associated with the operation of the structure may have been present at the site. Thus, the site was judged to have moderate potential for including intact archaeological features.

                Figure 13:  Sketch of the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp (Mulholland and Donahue 2003)

2.    Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp (Site 21LA526)

Stephen Mulholland recorded several building foundations, structures, and pits at the site of the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp in 1984 and reported his findings again in the Phase I survey report for the T.H. 1 project (Mulholland and Donahue 2003). Archival research suggested that no reoccupation of the site area occurred following the camp’s abandonment in the mid-1930s. Thus, the site was considered to have moderate to high potential for yielding important new information about the organization, construction, and use of Camp F-16 by Company 1720 between 1933 and about 1937.

A.    EXISTING CONDITIONS

The Phase II archaeological investigations at the St. Croix Lumber Company dam (Site 21LAOg) and Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps (ECW/CCC) Camp F-16 (Site 21LA526) documented the archaeological features present at each location through pedestrian survey, mapping, photographs, and excavation of shovel tests or excavation units. The results of each site assessment for eligibility are detailed below.

1.    St. Croix Lumber Company Dam Site 21LAOg

At the time of the Phase II investigation, the St. Croix Lumber Company dam site (21LAOg) area was fairly open. The project area was forested with mixed spruce, red pine, fir, oak, aspen, paper birch, ash, and other deciduous trees and shrubs on the terraces and uplands at the periphery of the site, except where cabin residents had established lawns and in graveled areas. The wetlands bordering the river and the lower terraces were vegetated with young trees, willows, reeds, and grasses typical of these conditions. Slate Lake was located east of the bridge and was drained by the river. The river at the dam was about 30 centimeters deep, making it possible to wade to all parts of the dam cribbing on the rocky bottom of the Stony River, except at the far west end, where the river bed dropped to a depth of at least 60 centimeters. The river bended around to the north for a short distance approximately 20 meters west of the dam before curving back to the west.

The extant Minnesota Trunk Highway 1 roadway and Bridge No. 6710 spanned the river about eight meters east of the dam cribbing (Figure 14). The two-lane bridge had timber cribbing on each end and two sets of six timber pilings to support the bridge, which was constructed of steel beams and concrete. T.H. 1 carried a moderate volume of traffic, primarily logging trucks and the vehicles of local residents.

The south bank of the river was about 1.5 meters high and steep at the southwest side of the bridge. The bank was built up at this location to fill a lower area between the bridge and the upland rising to the south and west. The fill was probably deposited when the dam was constructed and added to when the extant bridge was built to accommodate the crossing. The south bank of the river east of the bridge was much lower, with a low terrace about 30 centimeters above the current level of the river. The north bank of the river was also very low, except where the approach for the bridge had been built up. The ground rose to a broad high terrace about 20 meters north of the river and then inclined to an upland. Figures 15 through 20 show the dam cribbing and surrounding conditions. Shovel testing was done on the high south bank west of the highway and along the highway north of the river where intact soils might be found. No subsurface testing was done in floodplain areas.

A gravel service road, Forest Road 178, extended west from the highway from near the southwest end of the bridge and paralleled the south bank of the river at this location. A two-track trail on a berm extended southwest from FR 178 near its junction with TH 1. According to Mulholland (2003:27), the berm was originally a wing dam which was used to help impound water in the lake formed northeast of the logging dam. The southwest end of the berm was built against the slope of an upland rise. A wetland associated with Slate Lake was present on the southeast side of the berm. An irregular depression about one meter deep was situated on the northwest side of the berm and the south side of FR 178. The depression appeared to have been created by borrow excavation. The low terrace at the east side of the highway on the south side of the river/lake was broad and graveled. It appeared to have served has a staging area for highway maintenance or logging and was probably created during graveling operations at


Text Box: 32


.


          Figure 15: St. Croix Lumber Company Dam, Looking North

          Figure 16: St. Croix Lumber Company Dam, Looking Southeast

 

          Figure 17: South Portion of Dam, Looking West

          Figure 18: Central Portion of Dam, Looking West

 

          Figure 19: North Portion of Dam, Looking West

          Figure 20: Cribbing Timbers at East Side of Dam

this location. A concrete boat ramp was located about 100 meters east of the bridge. Cabins were present on the terrace along the north side of the river east and west of the highway outside of the project area

2.    Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp Site 21LA526

Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp F-16 was established by Company 1720 on a broad bench west of Little Spring Lake at the west side of extant Minnesota Trunk Highway 1 (Figure 21). The topography dropped off to a wetland north and northwest of the camp and rose to an upland south of the camp. Harris Creek was about 800 meters west of the site. The site was forested by mixed spruce, red pine, white pine, fir, oak, aspen, paper birch, ash, and willow, except for two clearings at the northwest part of the site and the driveway into the site. The clearings were vegetated by tall grass and a few scattered shrubs and young trees. The trees over most of the site ranged from saplings to well established trees 15 to 20 meters in height and up to one meter in diameter. Young trees were common in and around pits associated with the camp. A few trees had taken root over the concrete pads and floors of camp structures. Former roads into the camp were overgrown, except for the entry driveway. The forest floor was thickly carpeted in leaves. Outcrops of bedrock were exposed by erosion at the edges of the bench and at the base of the upland. A large ring of limestone encircling charcoal and ash on a concrete pad of one of the former buildings and scatters of modern debris in the adjacent tree line indicated use of the site as a social gathering place for area teenagers or young adults.

Structure foundations and pits were clearly evident during pedestrian survey despite the vegetation, although some trimming of trees and brush was necessary to determine the edges of the features and to record them. Therefore, shovel testing was not needed to determine the boundaries of the site. The weather was cold and included some light rain or snow every day during the two weeks of the Phase II investigation at the two sites.

B.    ST. CROIX LUMBER COMPANY DAM (21LAOg)

The St. Croix Lumber Company dam was represented by the remains of stone-filled timber cribbing in the bed of the Stony River at eight meters west of the extant bridge on Trunk Highway 1 (see Figures 14 through 20). The body of the dam was 31.5 meters long north to south, from bank to bank, and 15.5 meters wide. The timbers used to construct the cribbing were primarily “squared” logs of cedar or pine, although a few rounded timbers were present. The timbers were each 20 to 30 centimeters wide, 20 centimeters thick and 8.8 meters long. They were fastened together with long iron pins of an undetermined length that were 2.0 centimeters square. The tops of the pins were flat to faceted as result of driving them through the timbers with a sledge hammer.

There were eight rows of main timbers, each oriented east to west (see Figures 12 and 14). The first row of main timbers was at the south bank of the river and the eighth timber row was at the north bank of the river. They were attached over four to five cross timbers, which were oriented north to south. Attached to the tops of the cross timbers were a series of planks, which were parallel to the main timbers. A total of 24 planks were present between the central (fifth and sixth) main timbers. The planks varied in size from 6.0 to 30.0 centimeters wide, although most of the planks observed measured 10.0 to 18.0 centimeters wide and averaged 15 centimeters wide. Each plank was 5.0 meters long and about 2.0 centimeters thick. The planks were fastened to the cross timbers with somewhat smaller iron pins of an undetermined length, which were 1.3 centimeters square. The planking appeared to be on a slightly higher elevation of the river bed as the river was at least 30 centimeters deeper on the west side of the dam.

The east ends of the two central main timbers (fifth and sixth from the south bank of the river) extended east of the eastern-most cross timber about 60 centimeters. The east ends of each timber had a hole through the center, presumably to accommodate a piling or post (see Figures 12, 18 and 20). The round hole in the fifth timber was 40 centimeters in diameter and the oval hole in the sixth timber was 35 centimeters long east to west by 26 centimeters wide north to south.


Text Box: 37


The planks were placed over smaller cobbles (7 to 20 centimeters across) and gravel. Larger cobbles (over 30 cm across) and boulders (70 to 150 centimeters across) were piled between the two central sets of main timbers (the fourth and fifth and the sixth and seventh timbers) (see Figures 14 and 15). The west ends of the fourth, sixth, and seventh timbers extend four meters west of the body of the dam and may have been part of a sluiceway. The timbers and planking are often well-preserved under the water, although years of weathering, flood currents, and other disturbances have caused considerable deterioration to the overall remains.

Both sides of the river were inspected for evidence of related features, such wing dams, holding pens for logs, a dam tender’s cabin, latrine pits, or trash pits. Personnel walked at least 100 meters east and west of the extant highway bridge in areas approximately 50 meters wide. The south bank of the river at the west side of the bridge was steep and about two meters high. Forest Road (FR) 178 paralleled the river in this location. On the east side of the bridge, the south bank was low (about 30 centimeters high), although a slightly elevated (T1) terrace was present about three to five meters south of the river. On the north side of the river, the bank was low except where fill had been deposited to raise the road grade for the bridge. The ground rose gradually about five meters north of the river. No other logging features were observed. Mr. Stephen Mulholland, of the Duluth Archaeology Center (DAC), who visited the Berger crew while on site, reported that a 1934 aerial photograph of the project area showed that the timbered trail extending southwest of the intersection of Trunk Highway 1 and Forest Road 178 had been a wing dam that had impounded seven or eight feet of water at that time. In 2003, the trail was a broad earthen ridge that ended where the landform rose steeply about 117 meters south of the river. A long wooded depression about one meter deep was enclosed by the former wing dam, FR 178, and the steep slope. A United States Geological Survey (USGS) marker was found at the boundaries of Section 17 and Section 18. The marker was about 30 meters north of the center of FR 178 and 125 meters west of the centerline of TH 1.

The topography of the project area was such that a small number of shovel tests were sufficient to test the possible locations for subsurface remains. A total of 13 shovel tests were excavated (see Figure 14). The tests were placed at higher elevations, i.e. the top of the cut banks or T1 terraces but not in the floodplain as the latter low lying areas were unlikely to include any intact archaeological remains other than the dam. No shovel tests were placed north and east of the bridge as it was wetland within 50 meters of the river in these locations.

Shovel test Transect A was parallel to the south side of the river west of the bridge. Transect A included four shovel tests (A1 through A4) at 15-meter intervals. The eastern-most test was 24 meters west of the southwest corner of the bridge. Transect B was perpendicular to the river and Transect A and included Shovel Tests B1 and B2. Shovel Test B1 was 25 meters south of Shovel Test A1 to avoid FR 178. Shovel Test B2 was 15 meters south of Shovel Test B1 and on a slope down to a wetland bordering Slate Lake. Transect C was placed parallel to the south bank east of the bridge. Shovel Tests C1 through C3 were situated on the T1 terrace at 15-meter intervals. Shovel Test C1 was 15 meters east of the southeast corner of the bridge. Transect D included two tests. Shovel Test D1 was located 20 meters south of Shovel Test C2 to avoid the roadway east from the highway. Shovel Test D2 was 15 meters south of Shovel Test D1. Transect E was placed along the west edge of the north cutbank and road causeway. Shovel Test E1 was at the southwest corner of the cutbank. Shovel Test E2, located 15 meters north of Shovel Test E1, was not excavated because of a fiber optics cable line at this point. Shovel Test E3 was 15 meters north of Shovel Test E2. The results are presented in Table 4.

Four shovel tests yielded modern artifacts in fill deposits near the ground surface. Shovel Test A1 included a glass fragment and a piece of wire at 12 to 35 centimeters below ground surface (bgs). Shovel Test A2 yielded four pieces of brown bottle glass within 8 centimeters of the ground surface. Shovel Test B1 included three glass fragments and a wire nail in fill at 0 to 60 centimeters bgs. Shovel Test C2 included a  Winchester .30-.30 cartridge case  in the  upper 18 centimeters.  No artifacts clearly associated

TABLE 4

 SHOVEL TESTS AT THE ST. CROIX LUMBER COMPANY DAM (21LAOg)

STP

STRATUM

DEPTH

(cm bgs)

SOIL DESCRIPTION

RESULTS

 

 

 

 

 

A1

Fill

0–12

10YR 3/2 Sandy loam with 5% gravel

No cultural material

 

Fill

12–35

10YR 4/3 Sandy loam with 20% gravel

1 bottle glass, 1 wire

 

Fill

35–66

10YR 4/4 Sand with 30% gravels mixed with 10YR 4/2 Sand

No cultural material

 

C horizon

66–115

10YR 3/4 Sand with 50% gravel

No cultural material

A2

Fill

0–8

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 5% gravel

4 brown bottle glass

 

A horizon

8–45

10YR 3/2 Sandy loam with 20% gravel

No cultural material

 

B horizon

45–95

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 20% gravels and cobbles

No cultural material

 

C horizon

95–110

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam mixed with 10YR 5/6 Sand with

70% cobbles and gravel

No cultural material

A3

A horizon

0–14

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 5% gravel

No cultural material

 

B horizon

14–52

10YR 4/3 Sand with 40% cobbles and gravels

No cultural material

 

C horizon

52–90

10YR 4/4 Sand and gravel mixed with 10YR 4/6 Sand

with 50% cobbles and gravel

No cultural material

A4

Fill

0–15

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 5% gravel

No cultural material

 

C horizon

15–53

10YR 3/4 Sand mixed with 10YR 4/3 Sand with 60%

cobbles and gravel

 

B1

Fill

0–60

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 50% gravel

3 bottle glass, 1 wire nail

 

Fill

60–89

10YR 3/4 Sandy loam with 30% gravel

No cultural material

 

B horizon

89–115

10YR 3/6 Sandy clay loam

No cultural material

B2

Fill

0–75

10YR 3/3 Sand mixed with 10YR3/4 Sand with asphalt

And gravel

No cultural material

C1

A horizon

0–27

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 20% gravel

No cultural material

 

C horizon

27–42

10YR 5/4 Sand with 70% cobbles and gravel; rock impasse

No cultural material

C2

A horizon

0–18

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 25% gravel

1 .30-30 cartridge case

 

C horizon

18–55

10YR 5/4 Sand with 60% cobbles and gravel

No cultural material

C3

A horizon

0–13

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 25% gravel

No cultural material

 

C horizon

13–44

10YR 5/4 Sand with 60% cobbles and gravel

No cultural material

D1

Fill

0–40

10YR 4/3 Sandy loam mixed with 10YR 4/4 Sandy loam

With 60% boulders, cobbles, and gravels

No cultural material

D2

A horizon

0–16

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 20% gravel

No cultural material

 

C horizon

16–35

10YR 5/4 Sand with 70% cobbles and gravel; rock impasse

No cultural material

E1

Fill

0–35

10YR 5/4 Sand with 50% cobbles and gravel; rock impasse

No cultural material

E2

N/A

N/A

Not excavated because of fiber optic cable

N/A

E3

A horizon

0–13

10YR 3/3 Sandy loam with 10% gravel

No cultural material

 

C horizon

13–45

10YR 5/4 Sand with 50% cobbles and gravel

No cultural material

 

with use of the area during the logging era were recovered. Nor were any items found associated with prehistoric or historic native groups. The items were recorded, but not collected.

A total station was used to record the locations of the corners of the extant bridge over the river, points on the dam cribbing, the USGS survey marker, points along the centerline of TH1 and FR 178, points along the shore of the Stony River, and shovel tests. The total station was set up over a control point established by Mn/DOT (point “KELL”) at the north edge of FR 178 a few meters west of the southwest corner of the bridge guardrail. At the time of the investigation, there were about 30 centimeters of water over the dam cribbing and it was possible to wade out onto the cribbing to record data points and make observations about construction.

C.    DUNNIGAN LAKE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMP (21LA526)

As reported in Chapter IV, ECW/CCC Camp F-16 was called the Dunnigan Lake Camp although it is located west of Little Spring Lake and about three miles north of Dunnigan Lake. The camp was established in June 1933 by Company 1720. Originally a tent camp, buildings were constructed between August and December  1933.   The camp  was situated on  two  broad terraces  or benches at the north and

TABLE 5

FEATURES AT THE DUNNIGAN LAKE CCC CAMP (21LA526)

FEATURE

FEATURE TYPE

LENGTH

(cm)

WIDTH

(cm)

DEPTH

(cm)

DESCRIPTION

1

Root Cellar  Pit

455 (E-W)

320 (N-S)

81.0

Deep squarish pit with north entryway

365 cm N-S and 60 cm E-W

2

Floor & Chimney

435 (N-S)

300 (E-W)

4.0*

Poured concrete slab floor and pushed-

over, ceramic tile-lined stone chimney

and brick-lined hearth

3

Well and Pipe

100 (N-S)

73 (E-W)

20.0

Shallow depression with galvanized pipe

 At south side. Cored depth is 90+ cm

4

Concrete Pedestal

200 (E-W)

150 (N-S)

32.0

Rectangular poured concrete base and 70

cm high poured concrete pedestal

5

Floor & Chimney

435 (E-W)

300 (N-S)

4.0*

Poured concrete slab floor and pushed-

over, ceramic tile-lined stone chimney

and brick-lined hearth

6

Floor & Foundation

435 (N-S)

300 (E-W)

4.0*

Poured concrete slab floor over a stone

foundation. Earth mounded around

foundation 80 to 100 cm high

7

Drainage Ditch

2200 (N-S)

50 (E-W)

65.0

Narrow trench from NE corner of Feature

8 northeast, then north to edge of terrace

8

Concrete Foundation,

Floor & Pad

2290 (E-W)

620 (N-S)

35.0*

Poured concrete slab floor and footing.

Footings are 15 cm wide.

9

Pit

150 (N-S)

140 (E-W)

60.0

Small squarish pit filled with large stones

10

Concrete Foundation

& Floor

537 (E-W)

467 (N-S)

12.5*

Square poured concrete slab floor

and footings

11

Rectangular Pit

260 (E-W)

160 (N-S)

45.0

Small pit 100 cm south of Feature 10

12

Rectangular Pit

240 (E-W)

175 (N-S)

71.0

Large pit

13

Rectangular Pit

210 (E-W)

170 (N-S)

50.0

Small pit with sloped sides

14

Rectangular Latrine Pit

235 (N-S)

160 (E-W)

80.0

Stone-lined deep pit

15

Rectangular Pit

370 (N-S)

260 (E-W)

170.0

Large, deep rectangular pit

16

Square Pit

230 (E-W)

220 (N-S)

75.0

Large pit

17

Rectangular Pit

230 (N-S)

185 (E-W)

65.0

Large pit

18

Rectangular Pit

215 (N-S)

85 (E-W)

65.0

Small pit

19

Galvanized Steel Well

79 (N-S)

79 (E-W)

140.0

Corrugated cylindrical culvert pipe

set on end

20

Stone Retaining Wall

7440 (E-W)

60 (N-S)

200.0*

Dry-laid rock wall at north side of

Roadway into site

21

Stone Retaining Wall

1850 (N-S)

50 (E-W)

50.0*

Dry-laid rock wall north of Feature 5

22

Concrete Footings

550 (N-S)

450 (E-W)

26.0*

Poured concrete footing 15 cm wide

23

Square Pit

407 (N-S)

375 (E-W)

96.0

Large, deep square pit

24

Floor & Chimney

435 (E-W)

300 (N-S)

4.0*

Poured concrete slab floor and pushed-

over, ceramic tile-lined stone chimney

and brick-lined hearth

25

Slit Trench

164 (N-S)

92 (E-W)

15.0

Narrow rectangular depression parallel

parallel to Feature 26

26

Rubble Push Pile

275 (N-S)

140 (E-W)

40.0*

Mound of angular rock from structures

(Feature 24)

*Height of feature rather than depth.

northwest sides of an upland slope. The site was covered by a mix of conifers, deciduous trees, and brush, which had grown over the camp since its abandonment in the 1930s, except at the northwest part of the site, which was  open and  vegetated with tall grass  and a  few small,  scattered deciduous trees and brush  (see Figure 21). A total of 26 archaeological features associated with the camp were identified. Each is described below and summarized in Table 5. All measurements are in metric, but English equivalents are sometimes included in parentheses for building dimensions for comparison as the buildings would have been constructed using foot and inch measurement units.

1.    Feature 1

Feature 1 was a large rectangular pit with steeply sloped sides at the south margin of the camp (see Figure 21). The top of the feature measured 3.20 meters (10.5 feet) north to south by 4.55 meters (15 feet) east to west. At the center, the base of the pit was 81 centimeters below the ground surface (Figure 22). The pit had a long, narrow trench near the center of its north side (1.7 meters east of the northwest corner), which extended north 3.65 meters (12 feet) and was 61 centimeters (24 inches) wide. It appeared to indicate an entryway. Coring with an Oakfield soil probe at the center of the pit yielded 10 centimeters of yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine silt above 25 centimeters of dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam. Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) silt loam was present from 35 to 80 centimeters below the base of the pit. Test Unit 2 was excavated at the west side of the entryway at the north side of Feature 1 (Figure 23). Evidence of a stone wall was uncovered in the 1x1-meter unit. Test Unit 2 yielded a number of cans, bottle glass, and other items described below in the discussion of the excavation units. Feature 1 was interpreted to be the location of the root cellar reported by Alleger (n.d.:45).

2.    Feature 2

Feature 2 was the remains of a small structure at the south side of the camp (see Figure 21). It was represented by fragments of a poured concrete slab floor and footings scattered in a slight depression about 20 centimeters deep and by a toppled stone and brick hearth and chimney (Figure 24). The chimney was pushed over toward the north and west, indicating that the fireplace was at the south end of the structure. It was impossible to determine the corners of the structure, but the remains were identical to those for Feature 6, which measured 4.35 meters (14.3 feet) north to south and 3.0 meters (10 feet) east to west. The long axis of Feature 2 was aligned with magnetic north. The hearth was brick-lined. The bricks were hard brick with crisp edges, extruded, and orangish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6) in color. The bricks and irregular slab stones for the fireplace and chimney were bonded with cement. Two loose bricks were stamped “EVENS & HOWARD. / ST. LOUIS”and another brick was stamped “St. LOUIS.” Both are brands of the Evens & Howard Fire Brick Company of St. Louis, Missouri, which began production in 1867 (Compton 1875:51; Gurke 1987:300-301). Another brick was stamped “GOOSE LAKE.” The Illinois Clay Products Company produced Goose Lake brick between 1930 and 1942 (Gurke 1987:240-241).

The cap of the chimney was made of concrete. It had four tapering facets at the top. Each facet measured 98 centimeters long, 92 centimeters wide, and 19 centimeters at the outer edge and 22 centimeters high at the rim of the aperture.

3.    Feature 3

Feature 3 was interpreted as a well at the south side of the camp (see Figure 21). It was represented on the ground surface by a small oval depression measuring 100 centimeters north to south by 73 centimeters east to west (Figure 25). A galvanized iron pipe, 4 centimeters in diameter (1.5 inches), was at the south end of the depression. The threaded end of the pipe was 41 centimeters above the ground surface. The center of the depression was 19 centimeters below the ground surface. Probing with an Oakfield soil core at the center of the feature indicated that the fill extended below the length of the core, which was 90 centimeters long. Test Unit 1 was situated to include the northern-most 45 centimeters of Feature 3 (Figure 26). The feature fill continued below the base of excavation at 110 centimeters below ground surface. The unit yielded wire nails, a bolt, window glass, whiteware fragments, crown (bottle) caps, a hinge, a piece of angle iron, and scraps of leather and cloth to a depth of 80 centimeters bgs.

4.    Feature 4

Feature 4 appeared to be a pedestal for a sign at the southeast corner of the camp (see Figure 21). The  poured  concrete  pedestal was a  four-sided  frustum, or tapered parallelogram,  set on a rectangular


 






          Figure 23: Feature 1 (Root Cellar), Looking North

          Figure 24: Feature 2 (Toppled Chimney of a Small Structure), Looking North




           Figure 26:  Feature 3 (Well Depression), Looking East

footing (Figure 27). The footing measured 1.5 meters north to south and 2.0 meters east to west. It was 11 centimeters thick. The bottom of the footing was at 32 centimeters bgs. The body (frustum) of the pedestal measured 60 centimeters on each side at the base and 48 centimeters square at the top. It was 70 centimeters tall. A flat metal post 94 centimeters high was set in the center of the pedestal body. The post was 6.5 centimeters wide and 1.5 centimeters thick. The metal post had three holes, each 1.5 centimeters in diameter, at 17, 48, and 78 centimeters above the top of the frustum. A core taken beside the footing showed 35 centimeters of brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam over reddish brown (5YR4/4) sandy loam.

5.    Feature 5

Feature 5 included the remains of a second small structure (see Figure 21). Stone and brick chimney and fireplace rubble covered the entire base (Figure 28) and the dimensions of the feature were estimated to be the same as for cabin Feature 6, which were 4.35 meters (14.3 feet) by 3.0 meters (10 feet). The building appeared to have been oriented east to west based on the poured concrete base of the chimney stack at the south end of the feature. The base of the chimney stack included a segment of the concrete slab floor or footing, which measured 2.6 meters long. The concrete chimney stack base measured 170 centimeters (67 inches) long north to south, 107 centimeters (42 inches) wide east to west, and 43 centimeters (17 inches) high. The remains of the stone fireplace attached to the concrete base of the chimney stack were lined with yellow brick similar to those in the hearth of Feature 2. The chimney was lined with a yellow/buff ceramic tile casing. The dimensions of the casing were 41 centimeters (16 inches) by 28 centimeters (11 inches).

6.    Feature 6

Feature 6 was the poured concrete slab floor and stone foundation of a third small structure. The feature was at the north edge of the terrace, south of the driveway into the camp from TH 1, and west of Feature 8 (see Figure 21).  The  ground surface sloped  away  from Feature  6 on the west, north, and east

           Figure 27:  Feature 4 (Sign Pedestal), Looking South


          Figure 28: Feature 5 (Toppled Chimney of a Small Structure), Looking Northwest

          Figure 29: Feature 6 (Foundation and Floor of a Small Structure), Looking West

sides so that the floor was on a small mound about 80 centimeters above the surrounding ground surface (Figure 29). The mound appeared to have been created by earth deposited against the sides of a stone cellar foundation under the slab floor. The concrete floor measured 4.35 meters (14.3 feet) north to south and 3.0 meters (10 feet) east to west. A small poured concrete slab floor was offset from the northeast corner of the cabin floor. It began 1.4 meters east of the northwest corner of the cabin floor and extended 75 centimeters east of the northeast corner of the floor. The square floor measured 2.45 meters (8 feet) on all sides. A small pad was at the east side of the northeast corner of the cabin. The pad measured at least 28 centimeters long north to south (it extended under a tree) and 25 centimeters wide east to west. The north face of the foundation was exposed to as much as 48 centimeters below the top of the floor. A six- centimeter-wide board was present on the north face of the cabin foundation 34 to 40 centimeters below the top of the floor that may have been a wooden form.

Four displaced poured concrete post supports were lying near the east side of the southeast corner of the floor of the structure. Each appeared to measure 42 centimeters (16.5 inches) on each side and 30 centimeters (12 inches) high. One post support had a concrete footing that measured 46 centimeters (18 inches) by 32 centimeters (12.5 inches). Only one post support had a short, threaded iron rod at the top. The post supports may have been for a porch or veranda.

7.    Feature 7

Feature 7 was a narrow trench that was interpreted as a drainage ditch. Feature 7 began at the northeast corner of Feature 8, extended northeast (40o east of magnetic north) about 11.0 meters, and then continued north another 11.0 meters to the edge of the terrace escarpment above the south side of the camp driveway at a point about 33 meters west of the centerline of extant TH 1 (see Figure 21). The “western” half of the ditch was at the base of a gentle slope up to the next terrace (Figure 30). Thus, the base of the trench was 65 centimeters deep on the south side and 30 centimeters on the north side. The ditch ranged in width from 30 to 70 centimeters.

 

          Figure 30: Feature 7 (Drainage Ditch), Looking Northeast

8.    Feature 8

Feature 8 was the largest feature at the camp. It probably represents a recreation hall or kitchen and mess hall. It was a long rectangular poured concrete slab floor and low footing with a poured concrete slab pad at the western end (see Figure 21). Feature 8 was located at the southeast side of the clearing, although the feature was within the wooded portion of the camp (Figure 31). The footing for Feature 8 was 20 meters (65.6 feet) long east to west and 6.2 meters (20.3 feet) wide north to south. An interior north-south footing was present at 2.35 to 2.50 meters west of the eastern footing. Each footing was 30 to 35 centimeters (12 to 14 inches) high and 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick. Threaded iron bolts stood 6 to 8 centimeters above the top of the footings at corners and periodically along the footings (at 9.8-meter intervals on the north and south sides and 3.1-meter intervals on the east and west sides). The slab floor was 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) thick and lies 3 to 6 centimeters below the top of the footing. There was a 70 centimeter gap between the interior east wall of the footing and the east edge of the concrete floor.

The concrete pad at the west side of the building footing was flush with the south side of the footing and measured 4.0 meters (13 feet) north to south and 2.9 meters (9.5 feet) east to west. A triangular area (140 centimeters north to south by 90 centimeters east to west) at the northwest corner area of the slab was broken up somewhat. Three low, rectangular, concrete footings were set at an angle (28o east of magnetic north) to the main building footing and pad. The southern and center footings were on the pad and the north footing was about 20 centimeters north of the north side of the pad. The footings were arranged so that the northeast corner of the center footing was 90 centimeters south of the southwest corner of the north footing and the northeast corner of the south footing was 100 centimeters south of the southwest corner of the center footing. Iron rods were at each corner of each footing to anchor posts or some other superstructure. Each footing was 92 centimeters (36 inches) long, 43 centimeters (17 inches) wide,  and 15  centimeters (6 inches)  high.  A fourth, square footing was located 2.3 meters north and 2.7

          Figure 31:  Feature 8 (Footings and Floor), Looking West

 

meters east of the southwest corner of the building footing. The square footing was 58 centimeters (23 inches) long north to south by 53 centimeters (21 inches) wide east to west at the base and 53 centimeters (21 inches) long by 51 centimeters (20 inches) wide at the top, which was 30 centimeters (12 inches) high. A narrow ledge, marking the location of a mold, was 10 centimeters (4 inches) above the base of the footing.

9.    Feature 9

Feature 9 was a small pit at the southeast end of the clearing and 7.4 meters west of Feature 8 (see Figure 21). The feature was 1.5 meters north to south, 1.4 meters east to west, and 60 centimeters deep at the center. The pit was aligned 20o east of magnetic north. Numerous large rocks were at the base of the pit. The function of Feature 9 was not determined.

10.  Feature 10

Feature 10 was a poured concrete slab floor and low footing for a large building located in the grassed clearing at the northwest part of the camp (see Figure 21). Feature 10 was oriented at an angle of 345o east of north. The footing measured 4.67 meters (15.3 feet) north to south and 5.37 meters (17.4 feet) east to west. It was 12.5 centimeters (5 inches) wide and 9 centimeters (3.5 inches) high. An entrance was suggested at the south side of the southeast corner by a small poured concrete pad that measured 68 centimeters north to south by 137 centimeters east to west (Figure 32). A round drain was present at the southeast corner of the floor. The drain suggested that the building may have been a kitchen or shower house.

           

          Figure 32: Feature 10 (Footings and Floor), Looking West

11.  Feature 11

Feature 11 was a small pit located one meter south of Feature 10 (see Figure 21). The pit, which was aligned with Feature 10, measured 1.6 meters north to south, 2.6 meters east to west, and 45 centimeters deep. Stones were present in and around Feature 11, but no foundation or lining was indicated. An Oakfield core taken at the base of the pit showed 52 centimeters of dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam. Between 36 and 52 centimeters the matrix included a lot of rock and gravel. Decayed wood was present at 52 to 57 centimeters in the core. Compact, wet brown (10YR 4/3) sandy silt loam was between 57 and 65 centimeters. A rock impasse was hit at 65 centimeters. No artifacts were found in association with Feature 11. It size and location suggested it might be a latrine pit by the possible kitchen or shower house (Feature 10).

12.  Feature 12

Feature 12 was a steep-sided rectangular pit located 19 meters west of Feature 2 (see Figure 21). Feature 12 was aligned on magnetic north and measured 1.75 meters north to south, 2.4 meters east to west, and 71 centimeters below ground surface. Probing the sides of the pit with a chaining pin yielded no indication of a stone, wood, or concrete lining. No artifacts were found in association with Feature 12. A core taken at the lowest point of the base of the pit showed 8 centimeters of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) gritty silt loam above strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) silt loam at 8 to 46 centimeters. Between 46 and 84 centimeters the soil in the core was brown (7.5YR 4/4) very fine, granular sandy loam. The function of Feature 12 was not determined.    

13.  Feature 13

Feature 13 was another rectangular pit located 14 meters west of Feature 2 (see Figure 21). The feature measured 2.1 meters long east to west by 1.7 meters wide north to south and was 50 centimeters deep. The sides of pit were sloped and probing with a chaining pin suggested the pit was not lined. No artifacts were found in association with the pit. An Oaklfield core at the center of the base of Feature 13 indicated 10 centimeters of dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam above 40 centimeters of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) silt loam and gravel. Roots created a void between 50 and 75 centimeters in the core. At 75 to 84 centimeters the changed to dark brown (7.5 YR 3/4) silt loam. The function of Feature 13 was not determined.

14.  Feature 14

Feature 14 was a stone-lined rectangular latrine pit located one meter north of Feature 13 (see Figure 21). It measured 2.35 meters (7.7 feet) long north to south and 1.6 meters (5.3 feet) wide east to west. The pit was oriented at an azimuth of 338o east of north. The base of the pit was 80 centimeters below ground surface. A soil core taken at the base of the feature indicated 8 centimeters of humus above 55 centimeters of very dark brown (7.5YR 2.5/3) silt loam. Brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam was found at a depth of 63 to 81 centimeters. Probing with a chaining pin suggested that the pit was stone-lined. This was confirmed by excavation of Test Unit 3 at the north side of the feature. Test Unit 3 yielded a dry cell battery pack, complete glass jars and bottles, tin cans, wire nails, plastic, mica, animal bone, peanut shells, peach pits, newspaper, crown caps, whitewares, yellowwares, and window glass.

15.  Feature 15

Feature 15 was a deep, rectangular pit located 28 meters southwest of Feature 2 and 16 meters northwest of Feature 1 (see Figure 21). It measured 3.7 meters north to south and 2.6 meters east to west. It was aligned with magnetic north. The south end was steep-sided and 170 centimeters deep. The north side of the pit gradually sloped upward so that the base of the pit near the north end was only 50 centimeters deep. No artifacts were observed in association with the pit. Probing with a chaining pin suggested the possibility of a stone lining. An Oakfield core taken at the base of the south side of Feature 15 showed 8 centimeters of humus over brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam to 18 centimeters below the pit. Between 18 and 37 centimeters deep the soil was yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam. This stratum covered 18 centimeters of brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam over dark yellowish brown silt loam at 55 to 70 centimeters deep. Yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam was found at 70 to 86 centimeters in the core. The function of Feature 15 was not determined.

16.  Feature 16

Feature 16 was a square pit located one meter south of Feature 17 and 18 meters south of Feature 8 (see Figure 21). It measured 2.2 meters north to south and 2.3 meters east to west. The pit was oriented at an angle of 345o east of north. The base of the feature was 75 centimeters below ground surface. An Oakfield soil core taken at the base of the depression showed 8 centimeters of very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam over 33 centimeters of very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam. A rock impasse was hit at 45 centimeters below the base of the pit. No artifacts were found in association with the feature. The function of Feature 16 was not determined. Feature 16 was linked to Feature 17 by a shallow depression.

17.  Feature 17

Feature 17 was a rectangular pit located one meter north of Feature 16 and 13 meters south of Feature 8 (see Figure 21). The pit was 2.3 meters long north to south and 1.85 meters wide east to west. The maximum depth of the pit was 65 centimeters. The pit was oriented at an angle of 345o east of north. A soil core at the center of the pit indicated a 10-centimeter stratum of very dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam over 18 centimeters of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt loam. The Oakfield core encountered a rock impasse at 28 centimeters. No artifacts were found in association with the feature. The function of Feature 17 was not determined.

18.  Feature 18

Feature 18 was a moderately deep rectangular pit located at the south side of the camp 3.0 meters south of the southwest corner of Feature 1 (see Figure 21). The ground rose gently to the southeast. The feature measured 2.15 meters north-northeast to south-southwest and 85 centimeters east-northeast to west-southwest. The base of the pit was at 65 centimeters bgs. The sides of the feature were steep. Probing the sides of the pit with a chaining pin indicated earthen walls and no evidence of stone, wood, or concrete lining. An Oakfield core at the base of the pit showed 10 centimeters of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) silt loam above 20 centimeters of brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam. Under this was over 35 centimeters of brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam missed with yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy loam. Rock was at the base of this soil. No artifacts were observed in association with Feature 18. The feature may have been a latrine pit.

19.  Feature 19

Feature 19 was interpreted as another well. The feature was in a low area and was located 34.4 meters west and10.5 meters north of the centerline of extant TH 1 at the intersection with the driveway into the camp (see Figure 21). The well consisted of a segment of corrugated galvanized steel conduit pipe set vertically into the ground (Figure 33). The exterior diameter of the feature at the rim of the well wall was 79 centimeters (31 inches). The top of the wall was 63 (24.8 inches) above the ground surface. A series of 16 “bolt holes” set at regular (17-centimeter) intervals were present 1.5 centimeters below the rim. The surface of the water was about 20 centimeters below the rim. The depth of the water was 1.4 meters, including 50 centimeters of sediment at the base. There was no evidence of a pump or framing for the well.

20.  Feature 20

Feature 20 was a rock retaining wall at the north side of the driveway from extant TH 1 into the camp (see Figure 21). The wall supported an incline built from the highway up to the higher terrace on which the camp was situated. The east end of the retaining wall appeared to be 27 meters east of the centerline of TH 1. The wall was 74.4 meters long and tied into the steep east escarpment of the terrace. The top of the wall was about 60 centimeters wide north to south. The east end of the wall was about 30 centimeters high and the west end was estimated to be about 200 centimeters high. The irregularly shaped slabs of limestone and sandstone that were used to construct the wall were dry-laid.

21.  Feature 21

Feature 21 was a possible stone retaining wall toward the northeast side of the camp (see Figure 21). However, the feature may be the result of erosion along a bedrock outcrop. The feature measured 18.5 meters north to south and about 50 centimeters wide (estimated) east to west. It was oriented at an angle of 22o east of magnetic north. The wall ranged in height from 30 centimeters at the south end to 80 centimeters above ground surface at the north end, but averaged 50 centimeters high across most of its length. The south end of the feature was about 10 meters west of the northwest corner of Feature 5.

22.  Feature 22

Feature 22 was the poured concrete footing for a large building at the west side of the camp (see Figure 21). The footing was 5.5 meters (18 feet) long north to south and 4.5 meters (14.8 feet) wide east to west. The footing walls were 15 centimeter (6 inches) wide and about 30 centimeters (12 inches) high (Figure 34). The interior was filled with stone rubble, probably from a fireplace and chimney. No artifacts were found in association with Feature 22 and its specific function was not determined.

 

          Figure 33: Feature 19 (Well), Looking East

          Figure 34: Feature 22 (Concrete Footings), Looking West

23.  Feature 23

Feature 23 was a large, deep, square pit at the western margin of the camp (see Figure 21). Feature 23 measured 4.07 meters north to south by 3.75 meters east to west. The maximum depth of the pit was 96 centimeters. The feature was oriented at an azimuth of 25o east of magnetic north. No artifacts were found in association with the pit and the sides appeared to be earthen. An Oakfield core taken at the base of the pit showed 5 centimeters of very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam over 95 centimeters of yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) sand. The function of Feature 23 was not determined.

24.  Feature 24

Feature 24 was the location of a fourth small structure in the southeast part of the camp (see Figure 21). Stone from the toppled fireplace and chimney covered the structure location, which was oriented toward magnetic north (Figure 35). The dimensions of Feature 24 were assumed to be the same as for Features 2, 5, and 6, namely 4.35 meters (14.3 feet) long and 3.0 meters (10 feet) wide. A segment of chimney, that measured 81 centimeters (32 inches) by 71 centimeters (28 inches) in cross section, had galvanized metal flashing mortared into the stone. The flashing was 111 centimeters from the top of the stack. The chimney cap was concrete and similar to that found in Feature 2. The interior dimensions of the ceramic flue lining were 46.5 centimeters (16 inches) by 32 centimeters (10.5 inches). The fireplace hearth was lined with yellow brick similar to those found in the other similar structures.

25.  Feature 25

Feature 25 was a narrow rectangular depression parallel to Feature 26 (see Figure 21). The slit trench measured 164 centimeters north to south and 92 centimeters east to west. It was only 15 centimeters deep. Feature 25 was oriented at an azimuth of 10o east of north. Coring the base of the depression with an Oakfield soil probe showed a thick layer of very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam to a depth of 80 centimeters over at least 20 centimeters of brown (10YR 4/3) sand. No artifacts were found in association with Feature 25. The deep, organic-rich soil suggested that it was a latrine pit.

26.  Feature 26

Feature 26 was a bulldozed pile of stone rubble west of Feature 24 (see Figure 21). The rubble pile was 2.75 meters long north to south, 1.4 meters wide east to west, and 40 centimeters high. It was composed of roughly squared stone blocks and cobbles, suggesting it came from a stone wall or structure.

27.  Test Unit 1

Test Unit 1 was a one-meter-square excavation unit situated over the northern half of well Feature 3 to produce a cross section of the feature and sample artifacts in the feature fill. Prior to excavation, a plan of Feature 3 and Test Unit 1 was made and surface elevations were plotted (see Figure 25). The entire unit was excavated in five levels to a depth of 60 centimeters below ground surface (70 centimeters below unit datum) at which time the northern part of the unit was clearly in culturally sterile C horizon deposits. The feature fill was excavated to 110 centimeters below ground surface (120 centimeters below the unit datum) in five additional levels. The unit datum was 10 centimeters north of the northeast corner of Test Unit 1 and 17 centimeters above the ground surface. The first arbitrary level varied from 6 to 13 centimeters in depth to even the floor of the unit at 30 centimeters below datum. The remaining nine levels were each 10 centimeters deep. Feature 3 fill was excavated and screened separately from the remainder of the unit to maintain provenience distinctions between artifacts.

          Figure 35: Feature 24 (Toppled Chimney of a Small Structure), Looking East

Figure 36 illustrates the west profile of Test Unit 1 and shows the fill deposits in Feature 3. A limestone boulder was partially uncovered in the east side of the unit and upper fill of Feature 3. The feature was excavated through up to 30 centimeters of dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam (A horizon) at the ground surface. Under this surface stratum was a layer of brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam (AB horizon) 20 to 22 centimeters thick. The AC horizon was dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam. The top of the feature fill was up to 45 centimeters of very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam. Several fragments of concrete were at the bottom of this stratum and over a layer of 4 to 20 centimeters of very dark brown (10YR 2/2) silt loam mixed with dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) silt loam. At 80 to 96 centimeters below datum the soil was dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) silt loam with 70% gravel and cobbles. This was underlain by 15 centimeters of dark brown (7.5YR 3/4) sandy loam mixed with dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) sandy loam and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand. At 110 to 120 centimeters below datum the fill was dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam, the same matrix as at the soil surrounding Feature 3 after about 65 centimeters below datum. Feature 3 was funnel-shaped in cross section. The fill narrowed from about 100 centimeters across at the ground surface (12 centimeters below datum) to 50 centimeters wide at 75 centimeters below datum and to 40 centimeters wide at 100 centimeters below datum. If Feature 3 is a well, the sandy loam matrix at the base of the excavation may be material that collapsed into the well shaft.

Artifacts were recovered primarily from Feature 3. The northern part of the unit outside of Feature 3 yielded 28 items from only the upper two levels (30 centimeters), most (n=21) of which were wire nails. A bolt with a washer, two window glass fragments, and four ceramics were the other seven artifacts. All 143 artifacts from Feature 3 were found in the silt loam fill between 20 and 80 centimeters below datum and most (n=106) in the upper 50 centimeters of Test Unit 1. Objects found in the feature fill include 103 wire nails, a chrome escutcheon for a plumbing fixture, a hinge, a piece of angle iron, two crown bottle caps, 12 ceramic sherds, 16 glass fragments, three leather scraps, two pieces of cloth, a wood

 


fragment, and a piece of metal. Wadded paper and concrete fragments at 50 to 60 centimeters below datum were not collected.

28.  Test Unit 2

Test Unit 2 was a one-meter-square excavation unit placed by the northeast corner of Feature 1 such that the northwest corner of the unit was at the apparent southeast corner of the possible entryway. Prior to excavation, a plan of Feature 1 was made and surface elevations were plotted (see Figure 22). As the plan shows, the ground surface sloped gently to the east and steeply to the south. As a result, the northeast corner of the unit was 23 centimeters lower than the northwest corner, the southwest corner was 33 centimeters lower than the northwest corner, the southeast corner was 51 centimeters lower than the northwest corner, and the center of the unit was 42 centimeters lower than the northwest corner. The unit datum was placed at a high point 25 centimeters north and 5 centimeters west of the northwest corner of Test Unit 2. The northern 40 centimeters and eastern 6 to 20 centimeters of the unit were dug to 74 centimeters below datum in arbitrary Level 1 to bring all but the southwest corner area of the unit to the same plane because the matrix in Level 1 was clearly slump from the side of the feature. Levels 2 through 8 (74 to 144 centimeters below datum) were excavated in 10-centimeter intervals. A possible stone north wall of Feature 1 was identified in Level 4. Only the feature fill in the south half of Test Unit 2 (south of the stone wall) was excavated below 94 centimeters. Level 9 was excavated as a 26-centimeter-thick natural stratum to a depth of 170 centimeters below datum. It was comprised of loose fill with air pockets around a cluster of tin cans and other items. Level 10 was excavated into culturally sterile subsoil to 181 centimeters below datum. Although the unit was excavated in arbitrary levels for the most part, matrix from each natural stratum were removed and screened separately as they were recognized for increased control of provenience.

Figure 37 shows the north profile for the unit. Seven soil strata were identified. The upper stratum was dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam and 25 to 30 centimeters thick. This stratum yielded only one piece of glass and one ceramic sherd. The matrix below the topsoil was 15 to 25 centimeters thick and composed of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) silt loam. In the eastern half of the unit, this fill deposit laid over the possible stone wall. In the west half of Test Unit 2, a deposit of yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy loam, 10 to 16 centimeters thick, was over the row of stones and north of them. The line of rocks, interpreted to be the top of a wall, was made up of irregular pieces of tabular limestone. The row of stones was 20 centimeters thick. It is uncertain whether additional stones were present below this row as excavation of fill directly below the rocks would have caused them to collapse before the unit profile could be recorded. It was clear, however, that the stones were laid along the northern margin of Feature 1. A crown bottle cap, two wire nails, a wire hanger, a cap from a tube of toothpaste (“DENTA”), and five glass sherds were recovered from the yellowish brown sandy loam deposit.

Below and south of the line of rocks was a second deposit of dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam 10 to 25 centimeters thick. The deposit yielded 58 bottle glass fragments, six window glass sherds, foil, leather, folded paper, three pieces of wire, six wire nails, and five bottle caps. Below this deposit was a 10- to 20-centimeter-thick layer of yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy loam and limestone fragments. No artifacts were found in the matrix. This stratum capped a deposit of tin cans and other items in brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam that was 20 to 26 centimeters thick at 144 to 170 centimeters below datum. The brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam continued about 6 centimeters below the cans. Two ceramics, a piece of glass and five metal fragments were recovered from this layer, The floor of Feature 1 appeared to have been at 176 centimeters below datum, where the soil was compacted light olive brown (2.5Y 5/3) sandy clay loam. No artifacts were found in this stratum. The soil suggested that water pooled on the floor for extended periods of time and/or that clay was used to prepare an earthen floor.



TABLE 6

CANS SAMPLED FROM FEATURE 1 FILL

ITEM TYPE

LENGTH

(cm)

WIDTH

(cm)

HEIGHT

(cm)

SEAM TYPE

METHOD OF OPENING

COMMENTS

5 Large cans

15.5

15.5

17.8

Lapped side and ends

Can opener

Sanitary cans

2 Large lids

15.0

15.0

-

 -

Can opener

Sanitary can lids

7 Medium cans

7.7

7.7

12.3

Lapped side and ends

Can opener

Sanitary cans

12 Small cans

7.5

7.5

10.0

Lapped side and ends

Ax

Sanitary cans. Soldered pinhole vents on two cans

4 Small lids

7.0

7.0

-

 -

Can opener (3) Undetermined (1)

Sanitary can lids. Soldered pinhole vent on one can

1 Tobacco tin

7.6

2.6

11.0

Lapped side and base

Hinged lid

 

1 Solvent/
Spirits can

9.7

6.0

18.0+

Lapped side and ends

Screw top

Aperture 2.5 cm diameter at one end

In all, two glass bottles, 47 bottle fragments, and four cans were collected from the Feature 1 fill at 144 to 170 cm below datum. Artifacts sampled, but not collected from the deposit include five large sanitary cans that had been opened with a can opener, two large can lids, seven medium sanitary cans opened with a can opener, four medium can lids, 12 small sanitary cans that had been opened with an ax, an oval tobacco tin with a hinged lid, and a rectangular solvent or mineral spirits can. Table 6 lists the dimensions of the sampled cans. The sanitary cans had lapped side and end seams. Two small cans and one small can lid had tiny, soldered vent holes.

29.  Test Unit 3

Test Unit 3 was placed within the north half of Feature 14 in the western two-thirds of the pit (see Figure 21). Probing the sides of Feature 14 suggested a stone lining and Test Unit 3 was planned to explore that possibility. Figure 38 illustrates the location of the one-meter-square unit in Feature 14 and plots surface elevations relative to the unit datum. The unit datum was at 15 centimeters west of the northwest corner of Test Unit 3 and 10 centimeters above the ground surface at that location. The deepest point of Feature 14, near the center of the base of the feature, was 86 centimeters below datum and about 80 centimeters below the surrounding ground surface. The steep sides of Feature 14 were such that the northeast corner of Test Unit 3 was 49 centimeters below datum, the southeast corner was 78 centimeters below datum, the southwest corner was 11 centimeters below datum, and the northwest corner was 11 centimeters below datum. Therefore, the north and west sides of the unit were excavated from 11 centimeters to the apparent top of a stone lining to Feature 14 at 54 to 63 centimeters below datum. Then feature fill south and east of the stone lining was excavated in eight, 10-centimeter levels to 141 centimeters below datum. Most (90%) of the artifacts in Test Unit 3 were recovered from below 91 centimeters below datum.

The fill above the stone lining of Feature 14 consisted of 10 to 14 centimeters of brown (10YR 4/3) silt loam over 10 to 15 centimeters of dark brown (10YR 3/4) silt loam (Figure 39). These strata yielded 14 wire nails and one glass sherd. From approximately 60 to 120 centimeters below datum the fill was brown (7.5YR 4/4) silt loam with many tabular fragment of limestone. A pocket of dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/6) silt loam with 50% gravel and limestone fragments was at the top of the brown fill at the west wall. The bottom layer of fill was dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy silt loam mixed with brown (10YR 5/3) sandy silt loam and with some large limestone fragments.



Test Unit 3 yielded the largest number of artifacts (n=200+) including 66 pieces of animal bone. The most notable item was a cardboard dry cell battery pack found at 100 centimeters below datum. The pack measured 42 centimeters long and 17 centimeters wide. The pack included two tiers of zinc carbon batteries set on end topped by two rows of twelve batteries lying on their side. Each tier included five rows of twelve batteries. Each of the 144 batteries was D cell in size (seven centimeters tall and three centimeters in diameter). The batteries had cardboard jackets and copper positive terminals. A thin copper wire lying along the upper side of the top row of horizontal batteries appeared to have connected them in series. A black rubber strip was at the sides of each column of five dry cells, presumably for packing. A strip of pressed fiber board, three centimeters wide and one centimeter thick, was present along the top, bottom, and sides of the horizontal set of batteries under the cover. The upper 10 centimeters of the cardboard cover was yellowish brown and the lower 7 centimeters was light grayish blue. In the center of the buff-colored area, “MUSICAIRE” was printed in gold block letters five centimeters high (Figure 40). Above the brand name, were the words “RADIO BATTERY” in smaller block letters. At the bottom of the cover were the words “LOCALLY OWNED NATIONALLY ---AN---“also in smaller block letters. The saturated cardboard did not survive even careful handling of the object. Battery powered radios, such as the Musicaire MD 16 and 38-B Tombstone broadcast band radios and the Musicaire 721 shortwave and broadband table radio, were needed in areas where electrical power service was not yet available, such as northern Minnesota in the 1930s. At the camp, electricity from a generator apparently was used for lighting, but it is unknown whether the power was used for other purposes.

Other artifacts from Test Unit 3 are wire nails, window glass, mica fragments, whiteware sherds, yellowware sherds, sanitary tin cans, bottle glass, glass jars, crown bottle caps, a can key, a circuit board, a metal knob, an enameled “USA” pin, a toothpaste tube, rope, a gum wrapper, newsprint, miscellaneous metal, nut shells, peanut shells, peach pits, and animal bone.


Between October 20 and November 1, 2003 The Louis Berger Group, Inc. (Berger) conducted the Phase II archaeological site evaluation of the Dunnigan Lake Emergency Conservation Work/Civilian Conservation Corps (ECW/CCC) Camp and the St. Croix Lumber Company dam located within proposed highway improvements to Trunk Highway 1 in northwest Lake County, Minnesota (Project S.P. 3802-18). The work was funded by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) and licensed by the Minnesota Office of the State Archaeologist and the United States Department of Agriculture, United States Forest Service, Superior National Forest. The results of the investigation at each are summarized below and recommendations for additional work are discussed.

A.    ST. CROIX LUMBER COMPANY DAM (21LAOg)

The St. Croix Lumber Company was established in 1899 by three brothers, Martin, Ernest, and Burt Torinus of Stillwater, Minnesota (Wognum 1976:10). The company was sold to the Edward Hines Lumber Company of Chicago in 1910, which reorganized the operation as the St. Croix Lumber & Manufacturing Company. The company closed in 1923 (Bishop 2000:119-129). Thus, the dam was constructed sometime between 1899 and 1910, when the St. Croix Lumber Company was logging the Stony River watershed.

The St. Croix Lumber Company established a large camp at Slate Lake, which was the headquarters for the operations on the Stony River (Lindahl 2003). According to the USDA Forest Service Cultural Resource Inventory Form completed by Stephen Mulholland in 1984 (USDA 1984), the St. Croix Lumber Company established Camp 6 approximately 250 meters north-northwest of the dam on the upland west of the Happy Wanderer Resort in 1928. The camp site was outside of the scope of the current project and was not investigated by Berger.

Berger completed a pedestrian survey along both banks of the Stony River at the St. Croix Lumber Company dam site, but did not find evidence of additional features or structures associated with the dam. However, Mulholland and Donahue (2003) reported that the berm extending southwest from the dam at the intersection of T.H. 1 and FR 178 was the old wing dam associated with the logging dam. The wing dam tied into the slope of the rising landform about 117 meters southwest of the river. Berger excavated 7 shovel tests parallel to the south side of the river (Transects A and C) and 6 shovel tests perpendicular to the river (Transects B, D, and E). All of the tests were culturally sterile except for a small amount of modern trash in fill (see Table 3). Construction of current T.H. 1 apparently resulted in the razing of the dam superstructure and 1923 roadbed across the dam and grading and filling activities at the north and south banks to prepare a new approach to Bridge No. 6710. Construction of the bridge also caused removal of the boom east of the dam reported by Mulholland and Donahue (2003) on a 1934 aerial photograph.

The base of the dam cribbing remaining in the river bed and river banks indicate that the dam was approximately 31.5 meters (103.4 feet) long north to south between the banks. The body of the dam was about 15.5 meters (51.0 feet) wide east to west. There are two short projections toward the center of the east side of the dam at the ends of rock-filled cribbing. Each is 60 centimeters (24 inches) long and 50 centimeters (20 inches) wide. Each has a hole 35 to 40 centimeters (14 to 16 inches) in diameter through the projection to accommodate an upright post or piling. The rock-filled cribbing also extends west of the west side of the dam about eight meters (26 feet). The main timbers for the cribbing were primarily roughly squared pine logs, although a few rounded timbers were noted. Each timber was 20 to 23 centimeters (8 to 9 inches) wide and 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick. The timbers were 7.6 to 7.9 meters (25 to 26 feet) long. The cribbing logs were fastened together with long iron rods or spikes that were 2.0 centimeters (3/4 inches) square. The tops of the spikes were flattened to faceted from being driven with a large sledge hammer. The rock filling between the cribbing included boulders (70 to 150 centimeters in diameter) and larger cobbles (30 to 70 centimeters in diameter).

There were five planked “sluiceways” indicated by five sets of east-west oriented planks between the main timbers of the cribbing. The planks were fastened over the cribbing timbers resting on the river bed with smaller iron pins or spikes, each 1.3 centimeters (1/2 inches) square. At the center of the dam, 24 planks were counted. The planks varied in width from 6 to 30 centimeters (2.5 to 12 inches) wide, although most ranged between 10 and 18 centimeters (4 and 7 inches) wide. All of the complete planks measured 5.0 meters (15 feet) long and 2 centimeters (3/4 inches) thick. The planks were placed over smaller cobbles (7 to 20 centimeters across) and gravels.

The dam cribbing retains some integrity (many of the timbers forming the framework and planking are well preserved in the cold water) and can provide limited information about the construction of such dams for impounding waterways to facilitate movement of cut logs downstream to saw mills or extraction points. Information that the dam cribbing can contribute includes the dimensions of the dam, materials used, and general configuration. That information has been recorded in this report. A photograph of what appears to be a similar dam (Ryan 1976b:55) is shown in Figure 41. The photograph indicates that the log driving dam had a framework or cribbing of long timbers, which, in this case, were layered with brush to hold in the dam fill. Two central sluiceways extend from the dam to channel the logs through. The photograph and numerous studies about the logging industry in Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin between 1870 and 1930 suggest that more information about this type of dam can be obtained from archival sources.

The St. Croix Lumber Company dam at the Stony River along T.H. 1 does not appear to be eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion D. The dam superstructure has been removed, probably when the current route of T.H. 1 was established. Subsurface testing shows that the site area has been disturbed by grading, filling, and erosion. Gravel quarrying evidently occurred on the south side of the river east of the highway and bridge as a gravel pit is indicated on the 1984 photo revised West Slate Lake, Minnesota topographic quadrangle. The absence of the superstructure for the dam also makes it unlikely to be eligible under Criterion C as there is nothing remaining, except the base of the cribbing, to evaluate its contribution as a type, period, or method of construction. Other researchers may find that the dam location and affiliation can contribute to the broader historical context of the logging industry in northeast Minnesota under Criterion A, if a multiple property nomination is made, but this information is also obtainable from archival sources. No known historical figure (Criterion B) has been identified with the site. Current plans for the improvement of T.H. 1 and replacement of Bridge No. 6710 indicate that the dam will not be affected by construction activities. Therefore, Berger recommends that no additional archaeological work be done at this site.

B.    DUNNIGAN LAKE ECW/CCC CAMP (21LA526)

The Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp is located approximately ½-mile south of highway marker 304 and across the highway from Little Spring Lake. The camp was constructed on a broad bench or terrace at the northwest side of a low upland. A seasonal wetland is to the west and north of the camp. The north end of the bench is about three meters above the wetland. A rock retaining wall was constructed to build an access driveway above the wetland and up to the bench. Most of the site is forested with small to moderate-sized conifers, deciduous trees, and brush, although two tall-grass clearings are at the southwest part of the site.

Camp F-16 was established at the site in June 1933. It began as a tent camp, but construction of frame buildings occurred between August and November that year. According to Alleger (n.d.:45) the men built  an officers’  barracks,  four enrollee barracks,  a mess hall, a kitchen, a supply room, a hospital,

 

                         Figure 41:  Log Driving Dam (Ryan 1976)

 

an orderly room, a recreation hall, a garage, a wash and shower room, latrines, and a large root cellar. The camp was occupied by 200 enrollees (Company 1720) and probably an additional 30 Army and Army Reserve staff personnel and several U.S. Forestry staff. On May 3, 1934, Company 1720 was transferred about 55 miles south to Gooseberry Falls (SP-5) near Two Harbors. The company returned to Camp F-16 about September 30, 1934 (Long and Henning 1995:8.1). The date the camp was closed was not determined, but many of the early camps in Minnesota were closed by 1937.

Berger identified 26 features at the camp (see Table 4 and Figure 21). Features 2, 5, 6, and 24 appeared to be the locations of quarters, administrative buildings, or similar structures that had concrete slab floors. Features 2, 5, and 24 had stone chimneys that had been pushed over across the floors making it difficult to see the floor and identify structure corners. However, the features were similar in size and character to Feature 6. Feature 6 measured 3.0 meters (9.8 feet) wide and 4.35 meters (14.3 feet) long. Feature 6 varied from Features 2, 5, and 24 in that Feature 6 had an intact concrete floor built over a stone foundation and no chimney was evident. Feature 6 also was different in that it appeared to have a cellar beneath the floor and a small concrete pad associated with it that measured 2.45 by 2.45 meters (8.0 by 8.0 feet). The floor of the structure was at least 80 centimeters above the surrounding surface and the earth was mounded against the stone foundation. Feature 6 could very well be the officers’ quarters shown in Figure 5. Its location on a slope near the entrance to the camp would support this interpretation. Features 2, 5, and 24 were probably structures for the administrative office, hospital, or U.S. Forestry staff. The chimney hearths in Features 2, 5, and 24 were constructed of hard yellow brick some of which were stamped “ST. LOUIS,” “EVENS & HOWARD / ST. LOUIS,” and “GOOSE LAKE.” The Evens & Howard Fire Brick Company of St. Louis, Missouri, which also manufactured the St. Louis brand, began brick production in 1867 (Compton 1875:51) and continued at least through the 1930s. The Illinois Clay Products Company produced Goose Lake brick between 1930 and 1942 (Gurke 1987:240-241).

Features 8, 10, and 22 were concrete footings. Features 8 and 10 had concrete slab floors. Feature 8 was the largest, measuring 20.0 meters (65.6 feet) long and 6.2 meters (20.3 feet) wide. It also had a concrete slab floor or apron extension at the west end that measured 2.9 by 4.0 meters (9.5 by 13.1 feet). Feature 8 could be the location of the recreation hall shown in Figures 9 and 10 or the mess hall and kitchen. It seems less likely to be Barracks No. 3 in Robert Laudenschlager’s photographs (see Figures 6 and 7) as three or four other barracks of that size would have been nearby. Feature 10 measured 4.67 by 5.37 meters (15.3 by 17.6 feet) and had a small round drain in the southeast corner. A concrete pad measuring 137 by 68 centimeters (54 by 27 inches) was outside the southeast corner of the foundation. The drain in Feature 10 suggests the structure may have been a kitchen or shower house. Feature 22 measured 5.5 by 4.5 meters (18 by 14.8 feet) in size. Its function has not been determined.

Feature 20 was a rock retaining wall at the north side of the roadway into the camp. Feature 21 was another possible stone retaining wall several meters north and west of Feature 5. Feature 3 was a possible well indicated by a basin depression at the north side of a galvanized 2.5-centimeter- (one-inch-) diameter threaded pipe at the east side of the site near Feature 2. Feature 19 was another possible well represented by water in a cylinder of galvanized steel 79 centimeters (31 inches) in diameter and 63 centimeters (25 inches) above ground surface. Feature 7 was a drainage ditch that extended northwest and then north from the northeast corner of Feature 8 to the edge of the bench. Feature 26 was a pile of stone that appeared to represent a push pile. Feature 4 was a concrete pedestal at the northeast corner of the site that may have been a pillar for a plaque or sign.

There were 13 pit features of various sizes and depth distributed across the site. Feature 1 measured 3.2 by 4.6 meters (10.5 by 15 feet) and about 170 centimeters (67 inches) deep. It had a 3.65-meter- (12-foot-) long trench at the north end that appeared to be the entryway into the pit. Feature 1 appears to represent the root cellar reported at the camp (Alleger n.d.:45). Other large pits were Feature 15, which was 3.2 by 2.8 meters (10.5 by 9.2 feet) and 170 centimeters ( 67 inches) deep, and Feature 23, which was 4.0 by 3.74 meters (13.1 by 12.3 feet) and 96 centimeters (38 inches) deep. The remaining pit features were about 1.5 to 2.5 meters (4.9 to 8.2 feet) in size and 30 to 90 centimeters (12 to 36 inches) deep. Many may have been latrine pits. Feature 14 appears to have been stone-lined.

Three, one-meter-square test units were excavated. Test Unit 1 was placed at the north side of possible well Feature 3. No lining was observed in the cylindrical shaft feature, which was excavated to 91 centimeters below ground surface. Small numbers of artifacts were recovered including cloth, leather scraps, tin cans, bottle glass, nails, bolts, an escutcheon, ironstone sherds, and a hinge.

Test Unit 2 was placed at the west side of the possible entryway in Feature 1. A collapsed stone wall was identified in the unit, which was excavated about 100 centimeters into the feature fill. Most of the artifacts recovered from the unit were in a fill layer (25 centimeters thick) above the pit floor. Sanitary cans, tobacco tins, a solvent or mineral spirits can, whiteware fragments, bottle glass, nails, a wire hanger, paper, and tinfoil were recovered from the unit.

Test Unit 3 was placed against the northwest corner of Feature 14. The unit was excavated to about 130 centimeters below the ground surface and about 70 centimeters of feature fill was removed. The unit yielded sanitary cans, several glass jars and bottles, nails, sanitary porcelain fragments, a can key, mica, nails, a toothpaste tube, window glass, leather scraps, cloth, paper, an enameled pin, bone, six rodent skulls (muskrat?), peanut shells, peach pits, and a dry cell battery pack. The battery pack was a rectangular cardboard box with a tan and light blue cover measuring 42 centimeters (16.5 inches) long, 17 centimeters (6.75 inches) wide, and 15 centimeters (6 inches) thick. The pack held five rows of 12 size D dry cells standing vertically topped by a bed of five rows of six dry cells set on their sides. The upper half of the cover was labeled “MUSICAIRE” in block letters 3.5 centimeters (1.5 inches) high. Other lettering, which exfoliated from the surface included “R_D_O BATT___” / “LOCALLY OWNED NATIONALLY ___AN__.”

The dimensions of the structural features tend to be smaller than the standard sizes reported for ECW/CCC buildings by 1937 (see Table 2) and recorded at the Norris Camp (see Table 3). This may be because the Dunnigan Lake camp was established before standardized dimensions were implemented for all camp buildings. It is likely that a shortage of building materials at that time also required some modifications. The Laudenschlager photographs of Camp F-16 (see Figures 5 through 12) show that the buildings were one story structures usually with gable roofs. The roof on the officers’ quarters was hipped. The tool house was built of logs using a post and lintel system rather than a continuous rock or concrete foundation. Other buildings are frame structures with board and batten (recreation hall and officers’ quarters), tarpaper (Barracks No. 3), or clapboard siding (officer’s mess) exteriors. The structures have plank doors and small square windows with 4 to 6 glass panes. The officers’ quarters building has both a brick chimney and a metal pipe chimney, while the recreation hall and barracks have only metal pipe chimneys. Electrical lines are evident. Each ECW/CCC camp had generators in a power house to provide electricity to the various buildings. The administrative offices probably also had telephone service as soon as the lines were constructed by the program to local communities. The Musicaire battery pack found in Test Unit 3 in Feature 14 suggests that a battery-powered radio had been present, perhaps in the recreation hall.

The date the photographs were taken is not known so it is not possible at this time to know how the buildings changed during its use history. The camps were intended to be temporary, however, and the buildings were probably disassembled for reuse at other camps or burned for safety or to prevent scavenging by the local populous for materials when the camp was closed. Thus, it may be difficult to relocate some structures without systematic subsurface testing. The density of the forest growth over most of the site area makes mechanical stripping a poor method as the tree roots would tear up the shallow deposits associated with the camp buildings. It might be successfully applied in the clearing areas, however.

The range of artifacts recovered from Site 21LA526 is consistent with the recorded use of the site as an ECW/CCC camp during the early to mid 1930s. Most of the artifacts are related to food containers or packaging, such as glass bottles and jars, cans, foil tubes, foil, can keys, and bottle caps. Food remains include bone from beef, pork, and venison cuts, peanut shells, peach pits, plum pits, and acorn shells. Most of the food-related items were recovered from Test Unit 3 in Feature 14. Ceramic and enamelware dishes and utensils were found. Structural objects and furnishings included wire nails, bolts, screws, window glass, brackets, water or electrical piping, stove parts, and sanitary porcelain from bathroom fixtures. Personal items included a safety razor blade, a comb fragment, tobacco tins, an enameled “USA” pin or charm, and a shoe.

The Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC Camp includes structural remains and intact archaeological deposits that can contribute important information about the organization, diet, and activities at the camp, which was established in June 1933 and occupied by Company 1720 for about four years. Given the formalized (paramilitary) organization and operation of the program, Site 21LA526 appears to be highly representative of the ECW/CCC camps established in northern Minnesota between 1933 and 1942, when the program ended. Photographs are available that show some buildings at the camp (see Figures 4 through 11) and others might be located. Plans for the camp may be available at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

Additional archaeological stripping and testing may identify the function of the various structures and pits. Stripping may expose artifact concentrations and/or structure remains not evident on the ground surface for buildings that had minimal foundations or footings. Determining the exact size of structure foundations and pits, method of construction, and recovery of associated artifacts may provide clues to the probable function of these features. Sizes of features can be compared with information recorded about EWC/CCC structures, such as reported in Tables 2 and 3 of this report. Excavation can fully expose and document segments of footings or foundations to more fully understand how these structural elements were constructed at the camp. The apparent cellar foundation under Feature 6, in particular, should be more closely examined to determine why this structure had a cellar. The log tool house had a post and lintel support system. Did other structures at the site also have this type of footing, which is not apparent on the ground surface?

The quantity and kinds of artifacts found in association with particular features also can help determine the feature’s function. For example, high numbers of personal items (i.e. coins, combs, jewelry, pocket knives, nail clippers, tooth brushes, mint tins, game pieces, playing cards, dry cell batteries, or musical instruments) and clothing objects (i.e. buttons, buckles, straight pins, and needles) could suggest the location of a barracks building or recreation hall. High numbers of tableware, cooking utensils, and food remains may indicate the location of a kitchen or mess hall. Paperclips, staples, thumb tacks, pencils, pens, ink bottles, and rubber bands suggest the location of an administrative building or classroom. Military items, such as insignia or medals, could indicate the location of quarters for administrative staff who were drawn from the Army and Army Reserve. Latrines and waste pits should have a higher organic content as well as diffuse variety of lost or broken objects (i.e. coins, buttons, jewelry, dishes, bottles, tobacco tins, or pipe fragments) as well as food wrappers, printed paper, bone, seeds, and fruit pits. The upper fill deposits of latrine pits may include structural materials (i.e. nails, bolts, screws, hinges, brackets, latches, tarpaper, shingles, board fragments, pane glass, and plumbing or electrical fixtures) or furniture fragments dumped in the handy depressions when the camp was dismantled or razed.

The volume and variety of architectural artifacts associated with a structural feature may also indicate the construction of the building, particularly if the structures were dismantled or burned. Large numbers of common nails could be expected at the location of a frame structure, while low quantities of common nails would be used at the location of a log building. Bolts and nuts were used to assemble portable frame buildings. Finishing nails would suggest finished interior walls and moldings, which would be more likely at administrative buildings to improve appearance and at infirmaries and kitchens for improved sanitation. Window glass fragments would be fewer at the locations of storage buildings, shower/laundry buildings, tool sheds, vehicle maintenance shops, and blacksmith shops as these buildings typically have few windows.

Clothing, blankets, and linens were issued to each enrollee and to the Army/Army Reserve staff from surplus military supplies. Vehicles and equipment also were military in origin, at least at the early camps. However, individuals had their own personal items and probably some non-military clothing items and they were able to purchase other commercial products from local stores and a post exchange or canteen at each camp. The ratio of military issue artifacts to non-military objects could address questions about how important government supplies were to the operation of the camps. The data could be compared to short-term military installations of the same period. Artifacts could indicate the kinds of objects purchased by the camp members in contrast to the types of objects provided by the program.

Artifacts could also be used to discuss topics of consumerism. How much of the food consumed by a camp was composed of fresh/local fruits, vegetables, eggs, preserves, dairy products, or meat? How much meat was from species obtained by hunting or fishing during free time? How much food was commercially canned or bottled? What kinds of foods were typically consumed? What kinds of items were purchased in large quantities?

Civilian Conservation Corps camps have received limited attention as archaeological sites in the upper Midwest Region (Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin). Mark Branstner (1986) recorded the surface features at 21 EWC/CCC camps found during Phase I survey in the Huron and Manistee National Forests in Michigan. The Michigan State Historic Preservation Office reports 129 camps in the state archaeological files from 41 of the 83 counties in the state (Mead 2004). A total of 201 ECW/CCC camps have been listed for Michigan (Justin 2004).

In Wisconsin, a total of 182 ECW/CCC camps have been reported (Justin 2004). A survey of the Chequamegon and Nicolet National Forests recorded several EWC/CCC camps (Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest 2000). Phase I survey of the area of the Loretta CCC camp in the Chequamegon National Forest by the US Forest Service found no cultural resources associated with the camp (Bruhy 1985). Phase I survey of the area of the former Perkinstown CCC camp (Camp F-16) in Taylor County, Wisconsin determined that the site was entirely destroyed (Eberlien 1998).

Phase II evaluation was done at Rust-Owen Lumber Camp 35/CCC Camp Drummond (Site 47BA160) in the Chequamegon National Forest by HDR Engineering (Myster et al. 2000). Camp Drummond (F-42) was probably occupied by Company 3655 starting June 16, 1935. The site was recommended not eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places under Criteria A, B, C, or D. The authors did note, however, that the following EWC/CCC camps appeared to have potential significance: Camp Moose River (F-13; USFS No. 09-02-02-068) in Ashland County, Camp Delta (F-101; USFS No. 09-02-05-023) in Bayfield County, Camp Wolf River (USFS No. 09-06-04-163) in Oconto County, and Camp Section 11 (USFS No. 09-06-02-069) in Forest County, Wisconsin.

In 1996, a National Register of Historic Place Registration Form was completed for the Riley Creek Guard Station (USFS No. 09-02-01-039) in the Chequamegon National Forest in Price County, Wisconsin (NRHP 1996). Adjacent to the Guard Station, but independent of it, was ECW/CCC Camp F-3. The Riley Creek ECW/CCC camp was determined not eligible for the National Register because the site was cleared and graded with a bulldozer in 1945 and then fire plowed to prepare the ground for planting a pine nursery.

According to the Minnesota SHPO files, only 14 of the estimated 175 ECW/CCC camps in Minnesota (see Appendix C) have been recorded as archaeological sites. As of 2003, none of the camps without extant structures had been determined eligible for the National Register and none have been mitigated. Two camps are on the National Register because they have several structures remaining, Camp Norris (S-60) in Lake of the Woods County and Camp Rabideau (F-50) in Beltrami County.

Camp Robert Fechner (NP-2) at Big Meadows in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, was recently investigated by Nash (personal communication, 2004). Nash believes that this is the only ECW/CCC camp that has been intensively study archaeologically. The camp was built in May 1933 and demolished in 1942. The buildings were of stick construction set on posts. By uncovering the resulting postmolds, Nash was able to delineate individual structures. Roads, buried utilities, work areas, garages, a glider field and hanger, and parts of a baseball diamond also were found. Few artifacts were found within the camp, but a dump site outside the camp yielded sets of broken dishes (USMC Quartermaster Corps), abandoned cars and auto parts, and liquor bottles, the latter of which were contraband. The military destroyed, buried, or dumped in lakes equipment when the camps were closed. Nash suggests that the practice was to prevent the items from entering a market that was just recovering from the Depression and in need of a robust manufacturing sector.

There are a number of archival resources available for research about the EWC/CCC program as well as individual camps and companies. The National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni (NACCCA) is an active organization with its national headquarters in Jefferson Barracks at St. Louis, Missouri. It maintains a large library and museum with stories and photographs by and about EWC/CCC members. The National Archives in Washington, D.C. is the federal repository of information about the EWC/CCC. The Iron Range Research Center at Chisholm, Minnesota continues to develop a rich resource library for the EWC/CCC in the state. The center has audiocassette interviews with former EWC/CCC members. Many of the interviews have been transcribed. The IRRC also has a photograph collection of some of the individuals and camps in northern Minnesota. A CCC museum is located at North Higgins Lake State Park at Grayling, Michigan. Several books have been written about the EWC/CCC program, including a few pictorial histories (eg. Cohen 1980; Howell 1976) and personal stories of life in the camps (eg. Kiefer and Fellows 1983; Nolte 1990; Ryan 1987).

Because Site 21LA526 (a) has intact archaeological features, (b) was occupied for about four years, (c) appears to have artifacts that can be used to address a number of significant research questions, and (d) because few Civilian Conservation Corps sites in the upper Midwest Region have been intensively studied as archaeological sites, the Dunnigan Lake EWC/CCC camp is recommended as eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under Criterion D. Berger recommends that the proposed highway construction occur south and west of the site, which appears to be bounded in these areas by Features 10, 11, 22, and 23.

The site is also recommended as eligible for listing in the NRHP under Criterion A for its association with the Emergency Conservation Works/Civilian Conservation Corp activities in northeast Minnesota. The ECW/CCC program resulted in the productive employment and housing of 84,000 Minnesota men; the improvement or construction of roads, recreation facilities and other public structures; soil conservation; fire protection; disease and insect control in forest; and replanting of forests for the benefit of the state and nation. In Minnesota, the EWC/CCC constructed 1,635 miles of forestry telephone lines and 3,900 miles of forestry roads. Over 3.7 million acres of forest lands in the state were inventoried and 35 new state forests and parks were created, inventoried, marked, and improved. Operation of the ECW/CCC camps and the salaries paid to enrollees took families off of relief rolls in Minnesota and contributed $85 million toward stimulation of local, state, and national economies. Enrollees also were given opportunities for education and training which improved the quality of the state’s workforce.

No information has been found that associates the Dunnigan Lake ECW/CCC camp with the life of a person significant to the history of Minnesota or the nation. Therefore, the site is not recommended as eligible to the Register under Criterion B. While the camp appears to represent the typical organization of ECW/CCC camps in Minnesota, which were rapidly formalized nationally, the absence of intact superstructures – the buildings themselves – at the site does not support a recommendation for eligibility to the Register under Criterion C; that is, there is little archaeological information to contribute to a definition of an architectural type, period, or method.

Alleger, C.N.

n.d.       History of Camp SP-5, Company No. 1720. Pages 45-48 in Civilian Conservation Corps, Minnesota District. Johnston and Bordenwyk, Inc., Rapid City, South Dakota. On file, Ely-Winton Historical Society, Ely, Minnesota.

Birk, Douglas A.

1996     Outta the Woods and Onto the Mills: Shifting Timber-Harvest Strategies on Minnesota’s Early Lumbering Frontiers. Paper presented at the 1996 Society for Historical Archaeology meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Bishop, Hugh E.

2000     By Water and Rail: A History of Lake County, Minnesota. Lake Superior Port Cities Incorporated, Duluth, Minnesota.

Branstner, Mark C.

1986     Cultural Resource Inventory of Fire Lookout Towers and C.C.C. Camps on the Huron-Manistee National Forests. Great Lakes Research, Williamston, Michigan.

Brown, Edgar

1941     The CCC and Colored Youth. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Summary of text accessed on line, April 9, 2004 at http://newdeal.feri.org/aaccc/aaccc03.html.

Bruhy, Mark C.

1985     United States Forest Service Cultural Resource Reconnaissance Report: Road to Loretta CCC Camp, Chequamegon National Forest. United States Forest Service, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, Wisconsin.

Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest

2000     Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest Depression Area Administrative Sites, Recreation Facilities, fire Towers, and Civilian Conservation Corps Camps: Potential NRHP Eligibility. On file, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, Wisconsin.

Cohen, Stan

1980     The Tree Army: A Pictorial History of the Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933-1942. Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana.

Compton, Richard J., editor

1875     Pictorial St. Louis: Metropolis of the Mississippi Valley. Accessed on line February 24, 2—4 at http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/dogtown/history/evens-compton.html.

Dean, W.E., T.S. Albrandt, R.Y. Anderson, and J.P. Bradbury

1997     Rates, Timing, and Cyclicity of Holocene Eolian Activity in North-Central United States: Evidence form Varved Lake Sediments. Geology 25(4):331-334.

Drake, Robert

1987     The Civilian Conservation Corps: A Brief History. Pages 9-15 in It Was a Good Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps in Northeastern Minnesota, Edited by Edward P. Nelson and Barbara Sommer. Jointly published by the Iron Range Research Center, Chisholm, Minnesota, and the St. Louis County Historical Society, Duluth, Minnesota.

Eberlein, Jennifer

1988     Archaeological Survey of Perkinstown CCC Camp, Taylor County, Wisconsin. Nicolet and Chequamegon National Forests Heritage Resources Program Report Short Form No. TA-0149. United States Forest Service, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, Wisconsin.

Folsom, William H.C.

1888     Fifty Years in the Northwest. Pioneer Press Company, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Fries, Robert F.

1989     Empire in Pine. The Story of Lumbering in Wisconsin, 1830-1900. Reprint. William Caxton, Sister Bay, Wisconsin.

Gurke, Karl

1987     Bricks and Brickmaking, A Handbook for Historical Archaeology. The University of Idaho Press, Moscow.

Howell, Glenn

1976     CCC Boys Remember: A Pictorial History of the CCC. Klocker Printery, Medford, Oregon.

Jones, A. Holly, and Donita L. Carlson

2003     Phase I Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of Bridge Number 5610 on TH 1, Lake County, Minnesota. Submitted to the Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, by Leech Lake Heritage Sites Program, Cass Lake, Minnesota.

Justin, James F.

2004     Civilian Conservation Corps. James F. Justin Civilian Conservation Corps Museum. Information on line, April 9, 2004, at http://members.aol.com/famjustin/ccchis.html.

Kiefer, E. Kay, and Paul E. Fellows

1983     Hobnail Boots and Khaki Suits. Adams Press, Chicago, Illinois.

King, Frank A.

1981     Minnesota Logging Railroads. A Pictorial History of the Era When White Pine and the Logging Railroad Reigned Supreme. Golden West Books, San Marino, California.

Larson, Agnes M.

1949     History of the White Pine Industry in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Laudenschlager, Robert

n.d.       Photographs from the Robert Laudenschlager Collection. CCC Book 06, A-93-2958. On file, Iron Range Research Center, Chisholm, Minnesota.

Leake, Fred E. (editor)

1980     Roosevelt’s Tree Army. National Association of Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni. Ms. on file at the Iron Range Research Center, Chisholm, Minnesota.

Lindahl, Todd E.

2003     A Brief History of the St. Croix Lumber Company. Ms. on file with the author.

Long, Barbara Beving, and Dale R. Henning

1995     Gooseberry Falls Bridge #3585/T.H.61 Cultural Resource Investigation. Submitted to the Minnesota Department of Transportation by Loucks & Associates, Inc., Maple Grove, Minnesota.

Lynott, Mark J., Jeffrey J. Richner, and Mona Thompson

1986     Archeological Investigations at Voyageurs National Park: 1979 and 1980. Occasional Studies in Anthropology No. 6. Midwest Archeological Center, National Park Service, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Marschner, F.J.

1974     Map of the Original Vegetation of Minnesota. U.S. Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul.

McEntee, J.J.

1942     Federal Security Agency. Final Report of the Director of the Civilian Conservation Corps, April, 1933 Through June 20, 1942. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Mead, Barbara

2004     CCC Camps in Michigan. Personal communication, April 6, 2004.

Minnesota Historical Society

1981     Minnesota Statewide Archaeological Survey – Summary: 1977–1980. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

Mulholland, Stephen L., and Robert C. Donahue

2003     Phase I Archaeological Survey on T.H. 1 (S.P. 3802-18), Lake County, Minnesota. Submitted to the Minnesota Department of Transportation by Duluth Archaeology Center, L.L.C., Duluth, Minnesota.

Mulholland, Susan C. and J.R. Shafer

2000     The St. Louis River Project: Precontact Contexts in the Cloquet and Whiteface River Drainages. The Minnesota Archaeologist 59:29-43.

Myster, James E., Donna L. Stubbs, and Karen A. Gill-Gerbig

2000     Cultural Resources Management Phase II Investigation: Camp Drummond Site (47BA160), Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Drummond, Wisconsin. Submitted to the Northern States Power Company and United States Forest Service by HDR Engineering, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Nash, Carole

2004     Camp Robert Fechner. Personal communication, April 21, 2004.

National Park Service

1978     Draft Master Plan of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service.

National Register of Historic Places

1991     Federal Relief Construction in Minnesota 1933-1941. National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form. On file, State Historic Preservation Office, Minnesota Historic Society, St. Paul.

1994     Norris Camp. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. On file, State Historic Preservation Office, Minnesota Historic Society, St. Paul.

1996     Riley Creek Guard Station, Fifield, Price County, Wisconsin. National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, On file, Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, Wisconsin.

1998     Commercial Logging in Minnesota (1837-1940s). National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form prepared by Douglas A. Birk, IMA Consulting, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota. On File Minnesota State Preservation Office, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

Nelligan, John E.

1969     A White Pine Empire. The Life of a Lumberman. Second edition. North Star Press, St. Cloud, Minnesota.

Nelson, Edward P., and Barbara Sommer

1987     It Was a Good Deal: The Civilian Conservation Corps in Northeastern Minnesota. St. Louis County Historical Society, Duluth, Minnesota, and the Iron Range Research Center, Chisholm, Minnesota.

Nolte, M. Chester (editor)

1990     Civilian Conservation Corps: The Way We Remember It, 1933-1942.  Turner Publishing, Paducah, Kentucky.

Ojakangas, Richard W., and Charles L. Matsch

1982     Minnesota’s Geology. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Okstad, Walter D. and S. Crump

2000     Overview of the Superior National Forest Heritage Program 1979-1999. The Minnesota Archaeologist 59:22-28.

Otis, Alison T., William D. Honey, Thomas C. Hogg, and Kimberly K. Lakin

1986     The Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933-1942. Submitted to the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service by Pacific Crest Research and Services Corporation, Corvallis, Oregon. On file, Iron Range Research Center, Chisholm, Minnesota.

Peacock, Thomas D. and Donald R. Day

2000     Nations within a Nation: The Dakota and Ojibwe of Minnesota. Pages 116-134 in Minnesota Real and Imagined: Essays on the State and its Culture. Edited by Stephen R. Graubard. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

Peters, Gordon R., John O. Hunn, Karene A. Motivans, and Walter A. Okstad

1983     Cultural Resource Management on the Superior National Forest, 1982 Annual Report. Cultural Resource Report #1, USDA Forest Service, Superior National Forest, Duluth, Minnesota.

Raihala, Jenny N.

1984     The Civilian Conservation Corps. Ms on file, Iron Range Research Center, Chisholm, Minnesota.

Ryan, J.C.

1976a   The Duluth Lumber Industry. Pages 165-179 in Duluth, Sketches of the Past. Ryck Lydecker and Lawrence J. Sommer, editors. American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, Duluth.

1976b   Early Loggers in Minnesota, Vol. II.. Minnesota Timber Producers Association, Duluth.

1987     The CCC and Me. DeLores Guzek, editor. J.C. Ryan, Duluth, Minnesota.

Stanchfield, Daniel

1901     History of Pioneer Lumbering on the Upper Mississippi and Its Tributaries, with Biographic Sketches. Collections of Minnesota Historical Society Vol. 9:325-362.

State Bureau of Immigration

1912     Minnesota: The Land of Opportunity for Agriculture, Horticulture, Livestock, Manufactures, Mining, Education and Everything that Attracts the Immigrant. State Bureau of Immigration, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Swanholm, Mary

1978     Lumbering in the Last of the White-Pine States. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

United States Geological Survey

1984     West Lake, Minnesota Topographic Quadrangle. United States Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.

University of Minnesota

1981     Minnesota Soil Atlas. Miscellaneous Report 177, Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul.

Waters, T.F.

1977     The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Wognum, Anne

1976     History of the Lumber Companies. Pages 10-11 in Winton Historical Booklet. The City of Winton Bicentennial Sawmill Days Committee, Winton, Minnesota.

Wright, H.E., Jr.

1972     Quaternary History of Minnesota. Pages 515-548 in Geology of Minnesota: A Centennial      Volume in Honor of George M. Swartz. Edited by P.K. Sims and G. B. Morey, Minnesota Geological Society, St. Paul.


APPENDIX A

ARCHAEOLOGICAL LICENSE

APPENDIX B

ARTIFACT CATALOGING AND ANALYSIS METHODS

ARTIFACT CATALOG

APPENDIX C

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS

CAMPS IN MINNESOTA

APPENDIX D

MINNESOTA ARCHAEOLOGICAL

SITE FORMS